Samoa Population 2014

population 2014

Density of population, people / km2, 67. IDPs of Afghanistan: 2014 and beyond. 188X, 40,0, 1924, 92,0, 1954, 159,0, 1984, 2014. Plan Replacement Project in American Samoa", press release (September 17, 2014). Tutuila had a population of about 7,000.

A Samoa eyeball Rugby hit

"This begins in Samoan houses - the bonds between siblings and parents," he states. "When we meet as a group (to practice rugby), we put the same attitude from our own backgrounds into an area. "Samoa centres on the world of Samoa, and this is no different with the game.

14 people and the managerial staff begin their days in the camps with prayer and sermons. Most of the new members, who are teenagers or in their early twenties, were presented to the group. I joined a group that needed a lot of work and a change of culture," Punivalu added.

"Our culture is based on mutual respect and we work as a group. You have won 11 of the 14 Sevens Series and are the present World Champions.

SEROPREVALANCE and Spatial Epidemiology of Lymphatic Filariosis in American Samoa after Successful Mass Drug Administration

In the framework of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), American Samoa carried out a bulk medication delivery (MDA) from 2000 to 2006 and completed studies to evaluate the transfer in the years 2011 to 2012. ELISAs for LF antigens ( (Og4C3) and monoclonal antibodies ((Wb123, Bm14)) were carried out on a georeferenced blood sample of 807 adult volunteers in 2010.

Seropositivity related risks include old age, gender, years of life in American Samoa and work. The Og4C3 atigen of >128 CI (positive) was found in 0.75% (95% CI 0.3-1.6%) of respondents and >32 CI (equivocal plus positive) in 3.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.7%). Serovalence of Bb123 and Bb14 were 8.

Abnormally healthy subjects were detected in all age groups and resistance to HIV was higher with age. Malehood was higher in men, and vice versa, associated with years in American Samoa. The spacial distributions of specimens significantly differed with positives and ambiguities of the 0g4C3 antigens, but not with antigens. The mean size of the clusters with >128 cut-off points and >32 points was 1,242 and 1,498 metres, respectively, and the geographic closeness of the homes explains 85% and 62% of the population.

Highrisk population for LF in Samoa includes grown men and young immigrants. Lymphofilariosis (LF) is the result of infections with filmworms transferred by gnat sting. Significant advances have been made in the removal of LF in Samoa, and there has been a decrease in antibody presence from 16. In our trial, we investigated the overelevance and spacial spread of LF and antibody levels in adulthood in American Samoa to enhance our knowledge of LF transfer in a low-prevalence area, to devise appropriate instruments and policies to more closely monitor disruption of transfer, and to establish evidence-based guidelines for further removal policies in US Samoa.

Samoa has a very small population, and high-resolution geo-referenced information would potentially enable the identity of individual persons and homes and violate privacy. Acknowledgements are made in James Cook University und GLaxoSmithKline für die finanzielle Unterstützung des WHO Collaborating Centre for Lymphatic Filariasis, Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Other Neglected Tropical Diseases at James Cook University, Cairns, Australie (LB, WM, PMG).

LF is a disregarded tropic illness of international relevance, with an estimated 1. 4 billion group in 73 administrative district at probability of corruptness.

More than 120 million patients around the world are currently affected by lymphocytic filariosis and 40 million are deformed and handicapped[1]. Founded in 1999, the Pacific Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis or PacELF is part of the Global Programme to LFate ( "GPELF"), which aims to eradicate the condition as a major concern for human and animal well-being in 22 Pacific island states and regions (PICTs) by 2020[2].

Varying advances have been made since then in the reduction of ovality and interruption of transfer on different islands[3], but significant successes have been made in the Samoan Isles, particularly in American Samoa. Prior to the 1960', both Samoa (formerly known as Western Samoa) and American Samoa had a high incidence (?%) of lymphocytic filariasis[4],[5].

Several MDA sessions in the 1960' had significant effects and decreased the incidence of microfilaremia to less than 2%, but neither Samoa nor American Samoa were able to sustainably interrupt the transmission[6]-[9]. Until 1999, an antibody presence of 16. 5 percent (N?=?) was published in American Samoa and 4.

5 percent (N?=?) in Samoa. After seven round MDAs in American Samoa, antibody presence fell from 2000-2006 to 2.3% (-=-) in 2007 in a joint research project involving all ages[10]. On the basis of this objective and the size of the samples, cut-off levels are computed so that the analysis unit has a probability of at least 75% if the actual incidence of antigenemia is 0.5% and not more than 5% if the actual incidence is at ?%.

No further MDA is advised for analysis devices where the number of antigen-positive persons is below the cut-off value due to the low risks of further transfer. In 2011-12, American Samoa successfully completed the Transmittance Assessments Survey (TAS) to see if ICT map test showed that 6-7 year-old infants had less than 1% of antigens[ 11].

The TAS found in Samoa in 2013 in three assessment sessions (N =N ,585) that two sessions exceeded the set goals, one session (northwest Upolu) with 19 positive sessions (N = ,271, 7 cut-off ) broke down and further MDAs were recommended[13]. Historically high risks of revival on the Samoan isles are probably due to a mix of issues, among them low MDA cover and low compliance[14]; both incidental and incidental insect vector bites (including Aedes poliynesiensis and Aedes samoanus), which are very effective in the transfer of LF[15],[16]; and intensive transmittal environments such as tropical climates, high precipitation, an extensive range of appropriate insect populations and an open-air life.

The Samoa and American Samoa were a historical and ethnic one country that was split into two distinct states in 1899. The Samoan archipelago still has close ties in terms of the Samoan Islands' families, culture and economy, with regular journeys (often for long periods) and migrations. Earlier trials in Samoa and Haiti showed a significant microspatial incidence of infections in areas with low prevalence, indicating the possibility of small remaining sites of outbreaks on the neighborhood level, although the overall mean incidence in an assessment may be less than 1%[18],[19].

Continued overwhelming results of removal programmes depend on close follow-up to MDA, especially where there are high-prevalence residual focuses and where resurgent despite low past low survival has proved to be a challenge. Given the very low level of pre-emptive MDA, there will be an increasing need for statistical robustness in order to detect a current transfer, especially if it is limited to small geographical areas.

WHO's latest guidance promotes cost-effective post-MDA monitoring methodologies, such as the incorporation of LF monitoring activity with other population-based studies and opportunities for screenings of groups such as recruiters, hospitals and individuals donating microfilaremia, antigenemia or antibodies[11]. In 2010, we investigated the LF antigen and antibody seroprevalency in adult American Samoa to supplement the results of TAS in infants in 2011-2012 with the aim of giving a more comprehensive image of the LF in American Samoa after MDA.

Using a georeferenced databank and associated georeferenced databases, we determined the serovalence of HIV virus and antibody in adulthood, investigated the spacial infectious disease pandemic according to MDA and pinpointed possible remaining centres of infections and/or high-risk population groups that may need specific screening and intercept. The aim of our trial was to fill some of the WHO and GPELF identification gap in our expertise by increasing our ability to understand AF transfer in a low-prevalence area, investigating the value of serologic information for follow-up to MDA, developing new instruments and policies to more closely monitor the disruption, and providing evidence-based guidelines for forthcoming screening policies in American Samoa.

The American Samoa is a group of isolated South Pacific islands: the major Tutuila archipelago, the neighbouring Aunu' u archipelago and the isolated Manu'a archipelago (Ta'u, Ofu and Olosega). In 2010 the total population of the country was approximately 56,000[22], with over 90% of the population living in Tutuila, mainly in seaside towns.

Samoa has a subtropical climates and is one of the wetest populated places in the word (average precipitation of over 3,000 mm annually), with jagged isles, which comprise hills, dales, tropical rain forests, wetland, fringe and lagoon areas. Wucherereria bandcrofti is the only filarielle vermiform variety in American Samoa, and insect vector are the high-efficiency Aedes poliynesiensis and Aedes veloanus.

In 2010 (four years after the last MDA round for LF), a blood test was conducted for a trial of leptospirosis in American Samoa, and the trial was already extensively reported[23],[24]. On the very thinly inhabited Manu'a Islands, the space sample collection technique was not practical and a non-random sample was used.

There were 807 adult (18 to 87 years, 52. 4% men) from 659 homes in 55 towns on all five populated isles; 721 (89. 3%) were living on the Tutuila Principal Isle, and 555 (68. 8%) had been living in American Samoa throughout their lives. In the Serumbank compilation, each participant's principal place of living was geolocated using the American Samoa GIS User Group[25] detailled town map.

Surveys were used to obtain demographical information from respondents and were carried out by a crew of interviewees who were proficient in both English and Samoan. It was very well represented both in old-age and geographically for the mature population of American Samoa. Chart 1 gives an overview of the demography of the population.

The initial Leptospirus trial was approved by the ASIRB, the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the University of Queensland (MREC-UQ) and the Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services Human Ethics Committee. It was carried out in cooperation with the Department of Health of Samoa, and permits for visiting villages were obtained from the Department of Samoan Affairs and the heads of villages and/or the Mayor.

The ASIRB and MREC-UQ have granted further authorizations for the use of the Serumbank for lymphocytic research on lymphocytic lesions in the recent trial. The serologic Analysen wurden am WHO Collaborating Centre for Lymphatic filariasis, Soil-transmitted Helminths, and other Neglected Tropical Diseases an der James Cook University, Cairns, Australien durchgeführt. The Og4C3-Anntigen ELISA Test.

The test is designed to detect circulation of filaria virus CFA in the periphery of the lymph. Uniform value for each specimen on the basis of a default graph beginning at any 32,000 dilution with 4x. The Og4C3 antigens >128 unities (positive according to manufacturer's data) and >32 unities (positive and non-unique).

Mean value for the vials over 20 records was 4.9 samples. Wb 123 ELISA test for antibodies. This test identifies antibodies against the Salmonella virus Wb 123 virus from a W.bancrofti[26] larvae stage libraries. ELISA test was conducted using 10 µg/ml precoated plate containing Wb 123 atigen.

ELISA test for Mm14 antibodies. This test identifies antibodies against antigen that has been isolated from a DNA libraries analysed with samples from microfilaria-positive individuals[27]. Two 7-point double standards were recorded on each panel with a known high-positive PNG (S200) blood sample from 1? onward ( "dilution"), followed by a PBS/T 7-point sequential PBS/T sampled.

An 4-parameter adjustment graph was used to approximate the unit of the AM14 body per specimen. There were 125 cutoffs for positiveness, measured using known positives and negatives serums using empirical methods. As a result, ELISA test results were used for each LF virus and every single body.

Two different cut-off points were used for statistic analysis of the 0g4C3 antigen: 128 unit (positive results) and >32 unit (ambiguous and negative results). In American Samoa, the following were evaluated as impartial variables: population, gender, years of life, occupation, domestic incomes and housing area. In American Samoa, the number of years of life was divided into 10 years (those who stayed in Am Sam during all MDA' work).

Occupational groups have been categorised into those who i) work predominantly inside, ii) predominantly outside, iii) canned Thai Tunas Worker ( "the biggest non-governmental worker in American Samoa; >90% of the workforce are migratory workers) and iv) other (including the jobless, unfamiliar occupations and those who work both inside and outside).

In 805 specimens there was enough blood to carry out ELISA for Og4C3 antigens and in 806 specimens for Bb123 and Wb14 antigens. Sex was available for 803 people, for 798 people of ages, for 800 years in American Samoa and for 679 in households. In the Serumbank compilation, each participant's main home was geographically localized using georeferenced American Samoa GIS User Group[25] geographic information.

Population and populated areas on Aunu' u and the Manu' a were too small to be significant. Cards have been prepared showing the participant's household and participant location with ELISA positives for each one. Also, the geographical breakdown of respondents by years in American Samoa was investigated to see if immigrants are concentrating in any village.

The geoR packet 2-14-1 (The rendering of the geoR basis for statistics computing) was used to investigate the geographic dependency of serologic results for each specific protein and protein using a semi-variogram in the statistics program type RO. The Og4C3 level of antigens >128-unit ( "positive result") was found in 0.75% (6 people, 95% CI 0.3-1.6%) of the subjects and values >32-unit ( "equivocal plus good results") in 3.2% (26 people, 95% CI 0.6-4.7%).

Serovalence of Bb123 and Bb14 seroprevalences was 8. The correlation between the existence of LF antigens and the existence of LF monoclonal antibodies is shown in Tab. 1. The results show that both male and female levels of the virus were higher (Table 1). Fig. 1 shows the population composition and ovalence of antigens (Og4C3>128 and Og4C3>32) and anti-bodies (Wb123 and Bm14) in each group.

Antib123 and Bb14 were more prevalent in the older ages. The Bb14 prevalence was two to three time higher than that of the Bb123 among 30+ subjects in all ages. Conversely, myocardial contraceptive response to antigens was associated with the number of years in American Samoa (Figure 2 and Table 1).

8 percent (n =n ) had been living in American Samoa all their years. Comparing to an individual who had been living in American Samoa for over 10 years, new hikers who had been living there for 128 unit Og4C3 antibody having advantage relationships of 13. 7 (95% CI: 2.4-78. 4) and Og4C3 unit Og4C3 unit Og4C3 having advantage relationships of 6. 1 (95% CI: 1.9-19. 4) >32 unit Og4C3 antibody having (Figure 1).

Newcomers also had a higher prevalence of Antib123 and AntiBm14 in comparison to those who had been living in American Samoa for >10 years, but the difference was not significant in a statistic. Antibody and antibody prevalences were higher in the inhabitants of the Tutuila archipelago than in those living on smaller islets, but the difference was not significant for statistical purposes.

Canned tuna operators had a significantly higher incidence of Wb 123 but there were no other professional association with serovalence. Figure 3 shows a densitymap of the population in American Samoa (reproduced from[23]). Domestic sites of persons with Bm14 and Bb123 positives and negatives are shown in Figure 4 a and 4b and positive/unambiguous values of 0g4C3 in Figure 5a and 5 b.

Highresolution mapping of the Fagalii (Figure 6a) and Ili'ili (Figure 6b) towns shows the participant's home sites, those with positive/unambiguous results for 0g4C3 and the primary education site where two ICT-positive kids were detected during the Transmission Assessment Survey 2011. Highresolution map of A. Fagali'I and B. Ili'ili showing home sites of persons with >128 and >32 unit levels of 0g4C3 antigens and the schools in which two ICT-positive infants were detected in 2011 CAS.

Whereas the semi-variograms for Bb123 and Wb14 did not show significant small-scale variations, the semi-variograms for antigens (both Og4C3>128 and 32 units) showed significant remaining variations in space (Figure 7 and Table 2). In our results, the mean clusters were 1,242 meters for Og4C3>128 entities and the percentage of variations in Og4C3>128 entities declared by geographic closeness was 85%.

Og4C3 > 32 unit clusters had an mean Og4C3 > 32 unit population of 1,498 metres and the percentage of Og4C3 > 32 unit variations, due to geographic closeness, was 62%. Immigrants who had been living in American Samoa for 32 unit grade 0g4C3. The results of the TAS, which were performed at about the same age, provided avian influenza prevention information in 6-7-year-old infants, but the use of diagnosis testing for post-MDA monitoring would be better understood in all age groups.

To underline the importance of further research aimed at enhancing our knowledge of the last phases of eradication when the prevalence is very low, to answer operative issues in LF eradication programmes, in particular the roll of migrations, to develop instruments to improve the efficiency of post-MDA screening and control and to provide an evidentiary basis for eradication policies and objectives.

Subsequent trials will be carried out in American Samoa to establish whether there really are hot spots, to establish a model to quantitatively assess the importance of immigrants in the removal of AF and to investigate the use of Xenographic monitoring in the Pacific isles. However, the approaches and results of this survey are specifically for the Samoan Isles, but could also give an overview of AF transfer in other LF-endemic areas and be applicable to other Pacific Isles with similar life style, life style, culture, weather, environment and migratory pattern.

Thanx to Cathy Steel and Thomas B. Nutman (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) for discussing the use and interpretations of the Wo123 essay; Hayley Joseph (The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research) for advising on lab research; Mark Schmaedick (American Samoa Community College) for contributing community expert knowledge and verifying the work.

Also we would like to thank Philip Weinstein (University of South Australia), Archie Clements (Australian National University), John DePasquale (formerly LBJ Tropical Medical Center, American Samoa), Tele Hill (American Samoa Department of Health) and all of them for their contributions to the initial survey and georeferenced Serumbank collections.

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