Samoa CountryKuwait Land
Few freshwaters are important and therefore no important fresh water fishing, although a number of aquacultural is underway. Sea fishing is dominant, but due to the closeness of the neighboring states ( (American Samoa, Wallis and Futuna, Tokelau and Tonga) the EEZ of Samoa does not stretch 200 sea-mile in all directions and is with 120,000 km² the smallest of the Pacific islands.
The two large canned thuna factories in Samoa near the US have a big impact on Samoa. It provides employment for about 3,000 Samoans and a pole-and-line pole-and-line catchers. Near-shore fishery is operated by village people who operate in flat water lagoons near their land. It can be fished from or on feet from a canoe or other small vessel using javelins, netting, hooks and lines or, in the case of fixed invertebrate animals, with easy handling.
Fishery serves both livelihoods and trade objectives, with considerable overlaps between the two areas. The most important sources for small-scale Samoan fishery are: Fishes (mainly surgeonfishes, groupers, mullets, carangidae, rabbitfish), octopuses, mussels, Beche del Mé, turbot and crabs.
Comercial fisheries are conducted outside the coastline and off the shore by a large catamaran fleets, usually 9 to 10 metres long and driven by 40 horsepower outboards. In the beginning, a large part of the navy was involved in bottom fisheries along the southerly shelves and cliffs and landed high-quality deep-water snipers for exports to Hawaii.
However, with the increasing exploitation of deep-sea resources, the fishery was redirected to sea, with fishers aiming for skippjack and small yellow fin tuna by trawling around the FAD. Following the devastation of two major hurricanes that hit Samoa in 1991, the number of ships in the navy was further cut to just 40, and the fleet's annual catches dropped to around 200 tonnes.
In the early 90s, a ship rebuilding program and the implementation of efficient longlining technologies and equipment led to a rapid increase in the number of vessels during this ten-year period. In the mid-90s, the emergence of an exporter trade for albumacore and other tunas led to a further increase in harvest.
Until 1999, local longlineships caught some 5,000 tons valued at $10 million. In 2000 the state of the bluefin tuna fishing fleets:: In recent years, fishing by long-liners of tunas has included 71% of albacore, 12% yellow fins, 5% big eyes and 12% other fish. The Fisheries Division reports that 41 fishers have died at sea since 1996.
The Samoan fishers drove to Papua New Guinea in 2001. The Samoa area has relatively few external fisheries. The reason for this is both the small Samoa area and the fact that the production areas for purse seining and longlining are situated in the northern and southern parts.
Recent years' overseas catches of bluefin tunas have mainly come from American purse seine vessels crossing the area between their bases in Samoa, near America, and the northern north-west seabeds. As Samoa has finite fresh water reserves, there are only a small number of fresh water types and no significant harvest.
The evolution of Samoa has always aimed at the provision of alternatives to fisheries produce, in particular through the advent of alien fish stocks. Over the last few years, the Fisheries Division has concentrated on three areas of fish farming development: stockpiling of Tilapia, re-occupying coastal areas with huge mussels and the releasing of snails on the reef.
In spite of earlier difficulties with cultivation and fodder qualitiy, several enterprises were founded. At the end of 2000 there were 19 tillapia ranches in Samoa: 11 on Upolu and 8 on Savaii. The Fisheries Department says that within 6 month the tilapias will reach harvestible sizes if correctly cured.
Juvenile mussels have been brought into rural fishery reservations set up as part of a joint fishery managment programme. One recently closed Australian supported fishery included an element of fish farming assessing the aquacultural capacity in Samoa. Results of this trial came to the conclusion that (a) further evaluation experiments with triple-poid Pacific oysters, (b) cultivation experiments with bivalve molluscs, if a spring becomes available for spar, and (c) the introduction of tricochus into the country.
Seaweed is an important food resource for many Samoan seaside villages and is also the main food resource for some individual and household consumers. Today, fisheries are Samoa's biggest exporter. Of the 6,699 fishermen domestically, 70% did not fish; of the domestically selling part of their catches, about 31% were selling half of their catches, 29% about a fourth, 24% about three fourths and 20% of their totalches.
There are four exporters who buy bluefin tuna from the fishers to either freeze it in the two American Samoa canning factories or freshly cooled it to Hawaii, the US continent, Australia and New Zealand. In Samoa, a recent survey of eating sea food has shown that the annual mean intake of indigenous sea food per head is 57 kg, consisting of 44 kg of sea food and 13 kg of invertebrate and sea algae.
As an alternative, figures on fisheries output, imports and exports suggest that Samoa's per person per year per product was 61. A 1999 agricultural survey showed that a third of the Samoa population fished in some way in the weeks preceding the number.
There were 10,142 persons who fished in any way during the weeks preceding the survey. Furthermore, 1% of homes had members who were officially involved in the fishery. Samoa's overall value of the fishery amounted to approximately USD 23.6 million: Livelihood, US$7,143,000; Coastal, US$6,583,000; Local off-shore, US$9,840,000.
Today, the most important article of the country's economy is bluefin tuna. The Ministry of Finance of Samoa, 71. 8 percent of all Samoa shipments in 1999 were seafood. Fisheries Section states that 82% of all imports of fishery products were either tunas or tunas from the catch. In 1999 alone, some 60% of all the country's total was exported of it.
An ADB surveyed the contributions of fisheries to the Samoan population. The Commission found that fisheries account for about 6.6% of the country's GNP. In many areas around Samoa, the extensive plundering of territorial seas, combined with the damaging impact of devastating catches, coast degradation and sometimes serious hurricanes, has resulted in a significant decline in small-scale fisheries inland.
Recently a six-year programme promoted the creation of common schemes for the exploitation of small-scale fishing in order to tackle the recovery of these resources. Consequently, thirty per cent of Samoa's 230 coast towns now have fishing site managerial schemes. Sea protected areas have been set up at around 60 sites, which are an important instrument for the cultivation of these communities.
In a few years' to come, the efficiency of these managment schemes in curbing the loss of resources should become evident. Samoan islets have been valued differently as the continental shelves have enough deep-sea bottom stock to produce a continuous output of 20 to 60 tonnes and 88 to 118 tonnes, which is only enough for about 14 full-time vessels.
Other shore and reef areas are known to be within the EEZ of Samoa, but the prospective productive and final viability of these areas is not known. The current exploitation of these resources is at a low rate. Developments in small-scale longliners have led to a drastic increase in overall fish output in recent years.
There has been a greater increase in the amount of fishery activity than the number of boats suggests, as both bigger boats and more catches are being used by each one. The most recent surveys indicate a decline in longlining quotas in the 90s. This is presumed to be due to the interactions between gears in the Samoa area and not to the effects of fisheries on regional stocks of albacore and yellow fins.
The Samoa fishing authorities have come to the conclusion that the viability of the Samoa tunnel fishing industry will decline further without any kind of fishing limitation. That is why the goverment has limited the number of longlines. Since January 2001 there has been a limitation of 55 long line fishermen over 10 m. With regard to acquaculture, any evaluation of the Samoa population' s potentials should be seen in the light of previous experiences with acquaculture.
Recent assessments of Samoa fish farming have shown that the cultivation of Asian Oyster and Shellfish and the launch of trochos are the most promising. In Western Samoa, the most important legal tool for fishery is the 1988 Fishery Law. It monitors the operations of national and international fishery boats.
Its declared objectives are to preserve, manage and develop maritime natural assets, to promote research in maritime science and to protect and conserve the maritime world. One important part of the law is that the Director in charge of fishing "may, in agreement with fishers, industries and villagers' delegates, draw up and adopt a statute for the maintenance and exploitation of fishing which is not incompatible with the law".
With this regulation, many communities now have statutes to help them manage their fishery. The Samoa constitution has important repercussions for fishery. According to Article 104 of the Constitution, all lands below the flood line are reserved for the State, and therefore, from a legal point of view, all Samoans have the same level of protection of coastal resource.
Practically, the rules of the villages are applicable to both villagers and the outside world, and no Samoans can be differently expelled from the area. In August 2001, the 2001 Regulation on fish permits was adopted. The provisions concern the application for a licence, the number of available licences, specific consideration when filing for licences at home and abroad, the portability of licences, infringements and fines.
Further laws of relevance to fishing include the Territorial Sea Act of 1971, the Exclusive Economic Zone Act of 1988, the 1996 fishing regulations and the 1999 fishing amendment act. This latter concerns in particular the approval conditions for domestic and international ships, farms for water crops and farms for processed food. The Department of Fishery of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Meteorology (MAFFM) is responsible for this area.
Headquartered in the Upolu city of Apia, the department is managed by a deputy director (fisheries) and has about 35 employees who are organized in three major departments: Assistance in the evaluation and management of fishing, Community support for fishing and support for commercial fishing. It is in close co-operation with local and multinational organizations involved in this area.
Mr. Samoa ist Mitglied der South Pacific Commission (SPC), der South Pacific Forum Agency (FFA) und des South Pacific Régional Environmental Programme (SPREP) mit Sitz in Apia. It is also a contracting partner to a number of contracts and conventions on the exploitation of the region's fishing industry, including: the Treaty on Fishing between the Government of certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America; the Niue Treaty on cooperation in monitoring and law enforcement in the South Pacific.
The Samoa Agreement on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Agreement implementing the provisions of the United Nations Agreement on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 on the conservation and management of cross-territory stocks and highly-migratory stocks and the Agreement on the conservation and management of highly-migratory stocks in the West and Central Pacific have been signed.
The main research responsibilities lie with the Department of Fishery Evaluation and Executive Aid of the Department of Fischeries. There has been a reorientation of research in recent years to assist fishery managers, in particular the provision of information to them. These recently include the determination of areas eligible for fishing reservations under the rural development programme and help in assessing the impact of the reservatii.
We also have an energetic research program for tunas that gathers information on catches and efforts from local longliner fishermen. The information is analysed by the Fisheries Department and the SPC Oceanic Fisheries Program in New Caledonia. Further work covered the surveillance of absorptive pools to measure growing rate and other parameter, aquacultural experiments with macrobrachium shrimps and perna viridis, pilot fisheries and post-harvest experimentation.
Small numbers of trochoidal trays (Trochus niloticus) (40 and 78 trays, both 1990) were launched to assist the final evolution of a new small-scale fisheries for this fish. In 1999/2000, the Fisheries Department participated in some 50 on-site workshop and education events. The department also profits from education abroad offered by regionally based organizations or bilaterally and multilaterally donated funds.
In 1999/00, the department employees received trainings in the fields of fishery development, aquaculturing, algae breeding, sea protection, fishery managers and inshore-fishery. Samoa's biggest fisheries-related program in recent years has been the Australia-funded Samoa Fischeriesject. It was instrumental in promoting the exploitation of the coasts by neighbouring municipalities and the traditional exploitation of deep-sea fishery.
Reorienting the fishing department towards a stronger focus on interest groups in the fishing sector was a great success. It also benefits from financial support or the channelling of multi-lateral donors' aid from various local organisations, such as FFA, SPC and SOPAC. In Samoa there were a number of other fishing aid programs.
The assistance from Japan provided a fishing center, market places and a quay. In the near term, the most important fishing projects financed by subsidies will be the fishing yard facility financed by China. On the following pages you will find information about fishing in Samoa: Fishing's contribution to the Pacific Island economies. Another 3,000 Samoaans are working in the two canned canning factories in American Samoa.
Livelihood US$7,143,000; coast industry US$6,583,000; local off-shore US$9,840,000; aggregate US$23,566,000.