Samoa Island PopulationPopulation of Samoa Island
Popular intercommunication has been shown to help ensure the continuing and worldwide spreading of outbreaks. On the Pacific Islands, population movement is particularly important for the emergence of communicable illnesses, programmes to eliminate illnesses and the proliferation of illnesses through strong contacts. Population movements between Samoa U.S. communities, Samoa counties, and other lands were studied on the basis of trip information gathered from U.S. Samoa local government polls in 2010 and 2014.
In American Samoa, employees travelled throughout the entire island of Tutuila on a day-to-day basis, with the work centers coming from towns all over the island. Out of 670 interviewed adults, 37% had travelled abroad last year, 68% of them to Samoa. 57% of the 8-13 year olds (n?=?) had travelled abroad, 55% of them to Samoa.
There has been an extended web of links between Samoa communities and Samoa counties, with most journeys taking from a weekly to a monthly basis. In the Samoan archipelago, our survey showed that the population is very active and quantifies the scale and objectives of their missions. The results provide information on the effects of population migration on the spread of communicable pathologies and fine-tune current patterns of pathogen transfer in the Pacific isles.
Popular Mobility is long-a key research and programme activity in the context of the fight against and preventing communicable disorders, as it plays a key part in the proliferation, development and outbreak of diseases1,2,3. In the past, population portability has helped to maintain the incidence of avian influenza and extinction cannot be accomplished without this factor. Recently, the air transport system has been shown to help prevent the worldwide spreading of communicable illnesses such as the influenza pandemic5,6.
It is also assumed that seasonsal population movement can lead to bias in the estimation of morbidity, resulting in incorrect resource allocation7. Analyses of the number of IDTEs gathered at the European Centre for the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases between 2008 and 2013 showed that travelling and tourist rank above all other types of IDTEs8.
infections are the cause of significant disease and death in the Pacific Isles, as well as the Samoan Islands10,11,12,13. Inter-island travelling is likely to be an important driving force for the dissemination of ITSs in the area, but there is currently little evidence on travelling and migratory trends or the evaluation of the use of such information to provide information on the prevalence of contagion.
On the Pacific Islands, population movement is particularly important for the emergence of communicable illnesses, control programmes and illnesses disseminated through strong face-to-face contacts. First, large eruptions of vector-borne communicable pathologies such as Zika, chikkungunya and Dengue have in recent years expanded in the Pacific Islands14,15,16,17,18 and population movements are said to have helped to enhance the variety, incidence, spread and geographical scope of recent workahorses12.
Second, certain conditions such as lymphoid filariosis11, trachoma 19 and malaria 20 (in Melanesia ) are combated in the area. In lymphocytic filariosis, research from American Samoa indicates that transfer is still taking place and has probably led to new infections21,22,23, although studies to evaluate the transfer were conducted in 2011 and 201524.
Population movements can provide information on one of the causes of the prolonged outbreak and whether the level of inter-island traffic could be an important resource for the resettlement of parasites. Finally, population portability is important for illnesses that can be transferred through intimate face-to-face contacts, e.g. the spreading of measles and flu via breathing drops25.
Despite the fact that modelling has been designed to determine the sizes and properties of transport systems and possible controls26,27, the shortage of high-resolution public transport information has restricted their usefulness, as they are not able to take into account the impact of short-term commuter flows. Aim of the report is to examine the population' s movement between places (villages or districts) in American Samoa (a US territory in the South Pacific) and its most closely linked neighboring states, in particular Samoa (an autonomous country), on the basis of collection series.
It will be essential to understand the population' s ability to move around to inform the Samoan Isles about infection transfer patterns, and to refine current infection transfer patterns in the Pacific Islands26,27,28,29. Out of 807 people surveyed in 2010, 423 said they were working, and 411 of them provided information about the working town.
A commuter train from the residential village to the working village was established (Fig. 1). There was a population of 51,864, about 93. 4 percent of the population of American Samoa. Not only the in-degree but also the weighed in-degree were heavily distorted, suggesting that a small number of towns were attracting the vast majority of the commuter population.
Most populous towns were Tafuna, Pago Pago and Fagatogo and the town of Atu'u. In spite of a very small population (only 359 in the 2010 census), Atu'u was found as the most important commuter turntable with the highest rank in the net, as the canned tunnel factory there was one of the biggest employer in American Samoa.
In 2010, the 2010 census showed an activity rate (the share of adult workers) of 52. 423/807 (4%) in 2010, but this is probably an underestimation, as the poll was conducted during the day in the towns. In the supplementary figure S2 and the supplementary table S 1, the employee aged mix in the 2010 data collection and the rate of work according to the different ages were analysed.
Many 15- to 18-year-olds in American Samoa would still be in full-time schooling. In order to study commuter flows in American Samoa, the relationship between the number of working people in certain towns and the villagers was analysed. There was a significant affirmative link between the number of villagers and their sizes (Fig. 2(a)) and between the number of villagers and their sizes (Fig. 2(b)).
There was, however, no good match with either rectilinear (red dotted line) or line-free (blue dotted line) features that indicate that either the sampling per town is not sufficient to identify significant pattern, or that there are other drivers (e.g. street distance) that influence the links between working and living towns.
Starkist tinned canned finfish factory was the biggest non-governmental employers in American Samoa with around 2,500 people employed in 2014. We surveyed 498 canned canners in 2014 to explain the commuter net created from domestic surveys in 2010 and to gain an understanding of the demographics and movement of this important part of the population.
They were questioned at their workplace so that the commuter net can only be designed in one way (from home to a workplace). Canned food factory employees lived in 48 towns and registered a staggering 541 workplaces in 14 towns (some had more than one in the last 12 months).
The supplementary picture S3 shows the commuter net of employees in the 2014 data collection. 184 (1%) of the canned food worker interviewed were men and 62. The 2010 Cadensus shows that the number of men and women at the age of ? was 18,069 and 18,025 respectively. Poisson's test showed a higher percentage of women than men in the canning factory worker respondents (RR?=?. 59, p?