Samoa areaKuwait region
Isle. Samoa is an autonomous land consisting of the two large isles of Upolu and Savai'i and 8 smaller ones, about half way between Hawaii and New Zealand in the North-Pacific. Almost three fourths of Samoa's inhabitants and the capitol Apia live on the Upolu Isle.
The smaller American Samoa lies in the eastern part, see also Geography of American Samoa. range: There are two major archipelagos Savai'i and Upolu, with villages on Manono and Apolima in the Apolima road between Savai'i and Upolu. There is a small inhabited Namua between Manono and Apolima. Before the eastern end of Upolu lie the Aleipata Isles, small inhabited isles; the territory of the two major isles are small coastline plateaus with vulcanic, craggy, jagged hills in the interior.
Samoa is an independent state in the South Pacific, about 2 900 km to the North of New Zealand. The largest part of the Samoan Islands is occupied by the greater part of the Samoan Islands, which is 171° westward between the land of Samoa in the Western part and American Samoa, an area of the United States, in the Eastern part.
It has nine isles covering a surface area of 2 831 square kilometres, but the two biggest ones, Savai'i and Upolu, make up more than 99% of the country. It is of vulcanic origins and its hilly interior is shrouded in thick rainforests. Samoa's seven smaller isles are Apolima, Manono, Fanuatapu, Nu'ulopa, Nu'utele, Nu'ulua and Nu'usafee, of which only Apolima and Manono are populated.
As part of the Samoan Empire, the Independent State of Samoa consists of the two major political groupings ('Samoa' and'Samoa'): Savaiâi is 1 820 square kilometres and 1 860 metres high; âUpolu is 1 110 square kilometres and 1 100 metres high. Savaiaiâi is still volcanic, while Upolu is either deserted or at least inactive.
There are coastal, chestnut and marsh woods as well as a variety of rainforest species. In the following descriptions of the different kinds of vegetations, Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg (1998). It is a wood that can grow on sand or rocks in the confined area between low-growing coastal vegation on the sea side and low-lying interior timber.
It is the largest of the coastal municipalities and is often ruled by a unique type of trees, especially Barringtonia Asiatica, Calophyllum Iophyllum, Hernandia Nephaeifolia, Pisonia Grandeis or Terminalia Caprata. Soil of the woods is sparse. Strangely, Casuarina Equisetifolia is not a native of Samoa (or American Samoa). Monodominant Pandanus vectorius bushes of 1 to 6 metres height can be found in some areas directly at the sea of the coastal forrest.
The coastlines of Savaiâi and âUpolu). Mangroves, dominant in Bruguiera Gymnorhiza, are found in sheltered coves and mouths where freshwater reaches the oceans. Xylocarpus moluuccensis, rarely in Samoa, is connected to Bruguiera at a point on the Savaiâi southcoastline. The mangroves are often a group of mangroves with small to medium-sized mangroves of the Rhizophora steamer.
Mangroves can be seen in the âApia area of âUpolu. They are found in the coastline and interior of Samoa. A example of the coast along the southern side of Upolu is dominant by Inocarpus Fusifer, another one on the westside is said to contain dispersed Erythrina Fuzu. Indoor pools and crater with bad draining also offer living space for marshlands.
Fogalepolo craters to the east of Upolu contain a marsh, the centre of which is ruled by Pandanus vectorius, with an external edge of Barringtonia Samoensis. Others large parts of the marsh wood in the east âUpolu contain a mixture of different kinds, but have not yet been investigated. There are four main rainforest varieties, the most widespread and intricate in Western Samoa, which are characterised by their biodiversity, substratum and humidity.
â¢ Diospyros Forest: Moderate-sized woodland on well dewatered land in the interior of the coastal wood, this area is dominant of Diospyros olliptica and D. veloensis in conjunction with Syzygium clusterifolium and S. Deatum. It is an important part of the fish, and you can sometimes see coastal varieties like Pisonia grands. The Aleipata Islands just south of Upolu and Apolima Island between Savaiaiai and Upolu are good for this.
â¢ Pometia Forest: It is one of the highest of the Samoan rainforests, characterized by its solid canopies of Pometia pinna; these are Dysoxylum nollissimum sp. nolle, Ficus prolixa, Myristica Fatua, neonauclea Forsti i and Planchonella Sámoense. This is a ripe Samoan rainforest on young volcanic soil.
Formerly spread in the plains of Savaiâi and âUpolu on rocks up to 450 metres high, parts of the Pometia wood can still be seen along the south coast. â¢ Syzygium Forest: The Syzygium is a ripe rainforest on deep, weather-beaten old volcano soil on flatland spines and precipitous inner hills.
S. is dominant; associated treetops are Alphitonia zizyphoides, Calophyllum neo-ebudicum, Fagraea vitiense, Fagraea berteroana, lesser myristica, Myristica hypargyraea, Planchonella garberi und Dygium saison. â¢ Planchonella Forest: Today this wood is a ripe rainforest on moderate weathering volcanoes. Planchonella saoensis dominates the Calophyllum neo-ebudicum, Dysoxylum gaudianum, D. dollissimum ppp. nolle, Myristica fatua and Dyzygium intoophylloides.
The Planchonella wood once constituted a large part of the plain of Upolu and important areas of Savaiaiai. At altitudes of more than 500 metres, the weather becomes more humid (5,000 mm precipitation at an altitude of 600 metres), and the Planchonella wood slowly gives way to a mountain wood predominated by Dysoxylum heuntii. At these altitudes, two other types of dysoxylum (D. u. p. gaudichaudianum, D. mellissimum p. p. molle) occur in the alluvium.
Astronidium and Bischofia are associated tree crowns, Fagraea Berteroana, Hernandia Merenhoutiana, Reynoldsia, Reynoldssia St., Spraeanthemum Sozoense, Trichospermum Richi and Weinmannia St. This wood is found in the highest areas of Savaiaiaiai and Upolu. In Savaiâi, the volcanic young and porous substratum of Monte Silisili is covered by a medium-heavy cloudy wood over 1,200 metres in height, in contrast to the gnarly, low woods that can be seen on poorly dewatered substrata (e.g. Taâu in American Samoa).
Savaiâi wood is dominant with a 15 to 20 m high porch of Dysoxylum and Omalanthus accuminatus, Reynoldsia pliosperma and Weinmannia vela. Typical dominate Scaevola tacada and/or Wollastonia binflora on sand and rocks, this form of growth is found between the herbal beach area and the coastal wood or pandanus bushes.
Further typical types are Clerodendrum erme, Colubrina asiatica, Colubrina scarabra and Premna serratifolia. There are bushy areas of flora on more recent historical (ca. 1750 to 1911) areas of Savaiâi, representing young pioneering rainforests. On 1 500 meters another vulcanic bush area of Coprosma strigulosa, Spraeanthemum Samoense and Vaccinium White Egg dominates.
At least one spot at this height is a shrub-free plane of aspen, overshadowed by the Imperata and lichen grasses. It is the fellowship that is developing on recently deserted land that is rapidly populated by fast-growing stray and often haliophytic varieties. Much of the latter are disappearing, as the undergrowth is finally substituted by a primary wood that darkens the undergrowth.
Cleaned mountain areas on Savaiâi and âUpolu are sometimes overshadowed by the sown Musa x parodisiaca variety of seminiferas. These high forests are characterised by shady, incompatible shrubby undergrowth. Alphitonia zizyphoides, Elattostachys falcata and Rhus tapensis are the predominant types of woodland plants, but they are scarce in the undergrowth, indicating that they will ultimately be substituted by other types in the forests if no disruptive occur.
Further frequent types of secundary forests are Adenanthera javonina, Bischofia javanica, Cananga ororata, Dendrocnide harmonveyi, Dysoxylum ppp, Hibiscus siliaceus, Kleinhovia hospital, Macaranga stipulosa und neonauclea tosteri. In âUpolu, Upolu, Funtumia slastica, a weed-like, Africa gum plant, has become a dominating sub-canopy plant on the west half of the isle. Samoa and Tonga flora.
Comments on the Samoan botanical name. It gives the two large Samoan isles of Savali'i and Upolu tradable and non-tradable forests. Estimation of sales revenue. It also has orchard information. A good stock for the time; indicates area and capacity, but concentrates on wood products. Forested areas and woodland type on air photographs, square half-morning properties on line.
As of June 1999, Oliver (1999) shows the entire area of the orchard on 4,001 ha; a classification according to types and ages is possible. The majority of orchards have been planted in the last 5 years, the mean area under cultivation per year could be used as an approximate 540 ha per year. It is presumed that these objectives are applicable until the year 2000, but the rates should be adapted to the year 2000.
The share of plantations is thus put at about 93 per cent of the total population. South Pacific plantations forestry: The main layering takes place through production and unproduction forests. Cartography of types on the basis of air photographs with half-morning properties along a line. Nature of the metered volume: Surface and volumes in inches, not calculated in meters.
Mangroves, dominant in Bruguiera Gymnorhiza, are found in sheltered coves and mouths where freshwater reaches the oceans. Xylocarpus moluuccensis, rarely in Samoa, is connected to Bruguiera at a point on the Savaiâi southcoastline. The mangroves are often a group of mangroves with small to medium-sized mangroves of the Rhizophora steamer.
Mangroves can be seen in the âApia area of âUpolu. Samoa and Tonga flora. Comments on the Samoan botanical name. Samoa's forests policies focus on the sustained exploitation of the rest of its forests and the conservation of the local supply of firewood and hardwood. To maintain the viability of Samoa forests it is necessary to expand the present stock of forests and policies over the next 15 years are likely to focus on the promotion of plantations and the growth of small forests.
It is the only Polish nation with a wood exports sector. Forest degradation is a serious issue in Samoa. Over a 15-year time span from 1978 onwards, however, it is expected that 50 per cent of marketable forests and 30 per cent of non-marketable forests will be uprooted. A large part of the surviving commercial forests is affected by serious hurricane losses.
The yearly deforestation is currently put at about 4000ha a year. Since 1989, Upolu has been closed for harvesting, with less than 800 ha of deforest. This is a much greater proportion of the losses for Samoa than the deforestation of the Indonesian rainforests. To West Samoa, this depletion of native woodland is a disaster that involves not only the destruction of native eco-systems, flora and fauna not found anywhere else, but also a tragic depletion of watersheds, woods that preserve land instability and long-term resources of foods, agricultural and wood resources from the wild.
It was not until 1974 that an efficient foundation of plantations in Samoa began with the cultivation of Mahagoni and Australian cedar. As of November 1991, the Samoan forestry sector's land area was 3,522 ha following significant loss due to the Ofa Cycle. The dominating type is Mahagony, mainly because of its high resistance to windslides.
Types of eucalyptus and eucalyptus are also important. Since 1990, 2,100 ha of new plantations have appeared, which left West Samoa in September 1995 with 2453 ha of plantations, 70 per cent of which were mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla). There is a decrease in output in Western Samoa as the remainder of the country's forests are being cleared.
The government limited permissible logging from nature forests to 30,000 cubic metres in 1992. By 1995, however, Thaman and Whistler were still manufacturing only 85 per cent of their yearly lumber requirements (13,000 m3), suggesting that harvests had dropped below the limited limits. West Samoa's marketable forests and plantations were severely affected by cyclones in the 1990s.
Consequently, there is a reduction in production and a large shortfall in farm population. Olivier (1992) reported an annual mean of only 3 years for the rest of the West Samoa orchards after Cyclone Val. Samoa is likely to remain at least partly reliant on wood exports for the time being.
Samoa will still cover a large part of its own wood requirements if there are changes in the strategy to ensure sustainable management of the area. When the harvest proceeds at the current pace, most of Samoa's wood requirements will be exported by 2010. South Pacific plantation forestry: