Easter Island nameName of Easter Island
motu, Islet. nanue, favourite fish of the Easter Islanders. See what's in your name! The Mystery of Easter Island Poster.
The name in the Kohau Rongorongo font (Easter Island)
1The inhabitants of Easter Island invented a truly original system of writings known as Kohau Rongorongo. Kohau Rongorongo remained undecoded (see e.g. Barthel, 1993; Fignes, 1990). I' m going to prevent a long repeat of the Kohau Rongorongo tablet discoveries and the story of the various deciphering experiments - because such an issue requires an independant study.
I' ll also try to refrain from discussing my vision of the Kohau Rongorongo typeface as an example logosyllabic script1, whose text is typed without grammar marks in a modern Rapanui forerunner. Firstly, the strict and systematical structure of the Kohau Rongorongo tablet is still to be used from a conservation point of view, because the many design attempts cannot be described as a success (Harrison, 1874; Métraux, 1940:
Third, despite some allegations (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Kondratov, 1969: 169-192; Fedorova, 1982; Macri, 1996), the Kohau Rongorongo typeface as an example of the logo-silvery type system has been overlooked. Fourthly, there are no bi-lingual documents known in the narrower meaning of the term. 2 There is a "consensus" among scientists about the only possible interpretations, namely the string of characters of a family history that Nikolai Butinov and Yuri Knorosov identify in 1956 (Barthel, 1958: 308, 1993; Macri, 1996; Guy, 1998a-b).
In my view, the concept of "artificial bi-lingual texts" refers to cases in which either a certain text texture or the context of an epigraph makes it possible to contrast it with existing text in a certain tongue and to at least partly recognize its contents. As was initially noted by Nikolai Butinov and Yuri Knorosov (1956), there is a series of six groups of characters on the Small Santiago Table, Verso, lines 5-6 (Fig. 1).
At the beginning of each group the same symbol "man" is used. This is probably a namelist, and the character "human" is the same as the character k in front of the person's name. Sitting Man with Raised Hand" and "Turtle" shields followed the "Man" shield in the third group as well as the "Turtle" and "Shark" shields in the forth group, the "Shark" and "Octopus" shields in the fifth group and the only "Octopus" shield in the sixth. turtle in the second group.
Thus the second character of each group - which follows the character "Man" - represents the first in the following group. However, this kind of orientation implies that it is not just a question of a name, but a genetic history that rises from a descendent to an antecedent. In the third, forth, and fifth groups, the second character would be the name of the Holy Father. 3.
For example, the genealogical descendant of Hotu Matu'a in the Gabriel-Hereveri manuscript (after Barthel, 1959: 79) are the same: they are the same: they are the same as the other two: 4Yuri Knorosov's supporters studied the name' stigma in the Kohau Rongorongo script. In each group, the last character is "phallus". Metoro Tauara says the symbol should be interpreted as a" ur contraceptive device" in the form of a prick, sperm, clan".
Like Alexander Kondratov said (1969: 169-192), the character in dispute is probably a pathological mark, similar to the Russians --???? "patronymic suffix". Phallus " is used very frequently in the text and has a special distributive effect, which speaks in favor of this theorem.
It was Irina Fedorova (1982: 56-60) who found that the character "Phallus" in its current location is not the same as the text of the name a in Modern Rapanui, which marked the border between the name of the person in the narrower meaning and the name of the sire in the name of the sire. After Knorosov pointed out that the character appeared in a large number of groups (more than 100) on the Santiago staff, he also suggested that the text on the Santiago staff is a register of nicknames, a strange recording of childbirths (personal message in Fedorova 1997).
Attempting to find a name in the Kohau Rongorongo text labeled with a character other than BG076 (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Butinov, 1959) cannot be regarded as a success. 5 In this way the patterns of the name in the Kohau Rongorongo lyrics can be described by the formula: A] -B-C-D, 6wo A - character "human" (=TB200) - works like the fokus markers ko (Fedorova's item of the person's name) and is usually absent, A is a name that can be written with one or more characters, A is the name of the parent, which can also be written with one or more characters, and D - the character "phallus" (=TB076) - is the father's mark.
In the equation, the line between the name of the child and the name of the child is not highlighted. 7In view of combinatorial dates and ethno-historical proofs, the reading of the Fragments on the Small Santiago Plate and the symbol "Phallus" as name markers is persuasive or at least interesting.
In the Kohau Rongorongo writings, why is the property testified in all Polish tongues missing (Englert, 1948: 333; Elbert and Pukui, 1985: 136-145)? What makes the -ure extension in the other Kohau Rongorongo lyrics so rare? Can it be possible that there are almost no person identities there?
In genealogical terms, why does the symbol "human" appear only on the Small Santiago tablet and is missing before other labels with the symbol "phallus" when, as proposed by Butinov and Knorosov, it co-spells the point mark? 8 In this article, a text showing a particular division of a particular character is referred to as distinctive text.
Since the aim of the work is to investigate the name and its texture in the Kohau Rongorongo font, the focus will be on the Kohau Rongorongo pills with the pronounced TB076 characterization. These are three texts: Small Santiago Tablet, Verso, Honolulu Tablet B.3629.
9I would like to point out that Recto and Verso of the Small Santiago Tablet represent different text, since the Recto page bears the lettering of the Small London Tablet (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956). TB076 is also frequently used on the Small Santiago Tablet, Verso F(TB076)=11. 98%, while the Recto page shows no distinct division of the character F(TB076)=0. 56% (see Table 1).
One of the reasons why the Kohau Rongorongo typeface is poorly known is the unusual structure of the Barthel catalog (see e.g. Vignes, 1990; Macri, 1996). It is sometimes not clear in the catalog whether a character is one or a pair of two or three characters. 10 The high usage rate of the TB076 character makes it possible to distinguish these text from the others.
40 percent of the staff in Santiago, 22. on the Honolulu board 76% and 11. 98 % on the Small Santiago plate, at the back side, while for the other text it is the same as or less than 1% (see Table 1). In other words, TB076 is very rare on the other pills.
Simultaneously, the two previous text structures differ from the last, as the TB076 layout suggests (see Table 2-4). Glyph sequence with TB076 are divided by text scraps not highlighted with TB076 on the Small Santiago Plate, verso, while the text on the Santiago Rod and Honolulu Plate does not contain any inserts of the text not highlighted with TB076.
The mean spacing between the adjacent TB076 plates on the Santiago Staff and Honolulu tablets and from the unchecked text on the Small Santiago tablet is more or less consistent at the back side: it is 3. 04, 3 and 4. As a result, the text flagged TB076 contains name listings and RAV(TB076-076) represents the mean length of the name in the Kohau Rongorongo text in number of characters.
From this statement it can be concluded that the text on Santiago staff constitutes a unique register of 560 companies or similar people. 11 As the striking spread of the TB000 character indicates, the text on the Santiago staff differs in texture from that on the Honolulu table (see Table 4).
TB000 character only appear on the Santiago Rod, where it is confirmed 98 time and is frequently used F(TB000)=0.04. The TB000 is almost always in the same location and comes in one to two characters before TB076[RAV(TB000-076)=1.05]. The TB000 character is sometimes referred to as a specific hyphen or full stop (Barthel, 1958, 1971, 1993; Fisher, 1995).
This is unlikely because the character splits the text at uneven distances, always appearing at the same place as TB076 and missing in the other text. The TB000 character and the following characters are most likely to be added after or before the name[RAV(TB076-076)=4.
69/ for assumed name, TB000 and RAV(TB076-076)=3 included. Twelve for name without TB000]. 12 It is necessary to look at the beginnings and ends of the text with a pronounced spread of TB076 to respond to the following question: Has the TB076 character been positioned initially or finally in the name template?
Honolulu board is too badly broken to see its beginning and end. Text on the Small Santiago Plate, verso starts with a succession of name and ends with an unselected text segment (Fig. 2). Start with an introduction character and TB076, which shows that TB076 is more of a prefix there.
Santiago's staff's opening and ending line is a problem, as the line covers the entire area. Santiago's baton was arbitrarily numbered by R.A. Philippi (Barthel, 1958: 24). This text is composed of 13 identical character rows (lines 1-11 and 13-14) and an extra short line (line 12), which indicates that the text starts with line 13 and ends with line 12 (Fig. 3A).
TB076 is rather a first character if the suggested reading is right (Fig. 3B-C). 13The final evidence for the TB076 starting character in the name design comes from an in-depth study of the suggested Small Santiago Tablet familyalogy, Verso (Fig. 4). Obviously the name in the genealogic segment starts with the characters TB076-200.
Probably the widespread use of TB076 as a suffix (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Barthel, 1958: 109-112; Fischer 1995) is due to the fact that it is appended to the prefix. It is also known that in the Kohau Rongorongo typeface (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Barthel, 1958, 1971, 1993) the merging of characters is not used to divide the text into words, phrases and the like.
One such location of TR076 could be declared as a specificity of the Kohau Rongorongo graphic to affix certain characters to previous ones inclusive TR076. This statement is underpinned by the shape of TC076 itself and by the fact that some combination of TC076 with certain characters on the Santiago staff, e.g. TC755-076-075 (which do not violate the striking spread of TC076) are almost always mergers (Fig. 5).
Signs TB076 in the first series are deleted. The same name - the father's name in the first series and the son's name in the second - stands for two different spellings of the same word: (1) syllabary TB430-432 and (2) logographical notation TB769, i. e. TB769 is TB430 + TB432[TB430 is (c1)v1, TB432 is (c2)v2 and TB769 is ((C1)V1(C2)V2].
A comparison of the second and third sequence shows that the prefix group TB432-TB002 and the prefix TB350? are also used to describe the same words, i.e. TB350? = TB432+TB002 = (C2)V2(C3)V3[TB432 = (c2)v2 (see above), TB002 = (c3)v3; cf. Barthel 1958 Transliteration: 59].
After TB076 in the 7th series, the character after TB076 constitutes a singular collection of characters TB062-TB073? which is probably used to type the same song with two phonetic characters, i.e. THB200 = TB062+TB073? = (C4)V4(C5)V5[TB062 = (c4)v4, TB073 = (c5)v5]. These characters are indicated with an asterisk.
The Santiago Staff, line 6. Personnel Santiago, line 10.TB073-006-076-076-075. The Santiago Staff, line 11. The Santiago Staff, line 4. The Santiago Staff, line 13. The Santiago Staff, line 2. The Santiago Staff, line 14. Suggested headings are indicated by the box, the characters TB076 and TB000 by arrow. 14 In this article, a character which has a pronounced division in text is described as distinctive. 14.
An emblem is distinctive when it is displayed at a certain point in relation to a particular emblem. Considering the objectives of this document, the focus of interest will be on characters that appear at a certain point in relation to the TB076-symbol. A further speciality of the characters is their ability to create ABAB, BABA, AAAA and AAA type strings in conjunction with other characters.
For a long time it was found that such GI in the Kohau Rongorongo text was frequently used (Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Kondratov, 1969: 169-192). It should be emphasized, however, that such a special characteristic as the ability to create ABAB, BABA, AAAA and AAA strings strongly indicates that the character has a phonic (syllabic) value only because combination of words such as "fish fish" do not mean anything in any of the languages (cf. TB700-700-700-700-700-700-700-700, Small Santiago Tablet, Verso, Line 5; Atua-Mata-Riri Tablet, Side and Line 4).
Conversely, the lack of this characteristic is an indication of a logographical value if the character in questions is presented with a sufficiently large number of samples in different interrelations. In my opinion, this notable character function can be used in rogorongo text to suggest and verify the readings of characters.
15The unique allocation of characters BT076 and TB000 is described above. TR076 is a syllable character as proposed in the following sequences: TR430-076-430-076, TR090-076-090-076, TR076-076-076 and possibly TR076-276-076-276 (Table 5). There are also a number of instances of doubling the shield on Santiago personnel where the deployment only predicted a single BT076 for a name.
16 There are characters and a combination of characters that often appear at a certain point on the Santiago staff and the Honolulu board in connection with TB076. After TB076, they appear in the name in the starting item. Rarely, if ever, they appear in the middle and end markings in the name or in the text not marked with TB076.
There are also no characters or character strings with a pronounced spread in the media and the end point. If there are some combination of characters at a certain place in the name, it seems that they constitute a title. Since this happens, some labels are supplemented by headings, others not.
It' very likely that songs are found on the Kohau Rongorongo plates in view of what we know about the Polish society (see e.g. Kirch, 1984: 34-37). Different books are documented in Rapanui folk lyrics (Easter Island manuscript E2: 1-6, in Barthel, 1974; text and translations are after Fedorova, 1988: 15, 46):
17 There is good indication that the characters in the starting point after TB076 can be interpreted as title. There is a possibility to make a statistic compare between lists that mention allegedly titled and those without, based on the large lists of lists of names confirmed by Santiago personnel. RAV (TB076-076) for untitled name, and inclusive of this is 3. 00 and 3.
and RAV (TB076-000) for untitled name, and inclusive of these is 2. 55 and 3.17. If RAV for name and title is likened to RAV for name without title, it is obvious that alleged title represents aggravation. 18TB530 character is logographical (Table 5). Eugene Eyraud noticed that at first sight all island inhabitants were the same because they had the same attire.
But Sebastian Englert added that there was still a great diversity of headgear, although all were made from the same materials as on the island (ibid.). Each one, known by a particular name, was wore on certain occasion and often had a symbolism. It can be assumed, in the light of what has been said above, that the symbol for the particular heading in dispute is a "man in headdress".
For example, the name at issue was most frequently used on the Kohau Rongorongo tablet with a pronounced TB076 breakdown (Table 6), while it only occurs 15 on the other two. Though the proof of a syllable value of TB021 is rather faint, I suggest that TB021 is a Phonetic supplement to TB530, since qualified people always adhere to the substantives that change it to Rapanui (Englert, 1948:
phonetic additions, which are not interpreted but rather certify the near readings of a punctuation mark, are a speciality of all known logo-syllabic scripture ("yellow", 1963: 250). Indeed, a small number of ABAB, BABA, AAAA and AAA series for TB021 can be attributed to our poor comprehension of Kohau Rongorongo graphs, or to the fact that TB021 is an all-ograph (a variation of the sign) mainly used on the Santiago Staff.
20 The characters TB010, TB020 and TB079, which are used to write possible headings and are referred to here as TITLE2[TB020-010] and TITLE3[TB010-079], are syllable characters, as their combination with other characters suggests (Table 5). Character TB200 is used frequently, but has no distinct distributions in the text flagged with TB076.
In ABAB, BABA, AAA and AA it is certified in combination with other characters (Table 5), which indicates its phonetic character. 21Based on the above discussions and newly added information, the name design in Kohau Rongorongo pills can be reviewed. First of all, we should ask why the possessionist a in front of the father's name is missing in the genealogical tablet of Little Santiago.
These grammar marks in similar connections can be omitted; it is a well-known phenomena in documents of different nationalities. Though there are no similar samples in the preserved Rapanui folk lyrics, we find them for example in the long genealogical of Hawaiian song Kumulipo (Song 11:717-721; after Beckwith, 1981: 205-206, 108): 22Some eight hundred name-couples of men and females are following this segment in song (ibid.: 109, 206-225).
Note that the possessions o and a are almost the same, in this case the distinction is that an (alienable property) concerns the name of a child and a child and o (inalienable property) the name of a spouse and a spouse (Elbert and Pukui, 1985: 137). For the same reasons, I suggest that the title to the name in the genealogical tablet of Little Santiago is missing.
I have attempted to find a possible nominee for (a) between the Santiago staff name. Nevertheless, I think it is due to our bad comprehension of the Kohau Rongorongo graphic and that there is a possessiv. 23In consideration of the owner's ability to omit in genetic engineering due to the clearness of connections and style grounds, the proposed significance of ur "patronymic markers" for TB076 should be overhauled.
Like mentioned above, TR076 is a syllable symbol, which is certified in the starting positions, i.e. before name, in genealogy and name index. Comparing the available Rapanui genes and folk lyrics (see some samples below) it becomes clear that Tub076 works like the co-focus marker: 24The Estevan Atan Manuscript, Ko Hotu Matua (after Heyerdahl and Ferdon, 1965: fig. 123): 25The Juan Haoa Manuscript (after Heyerdahl and Ferdon, 1965: fig. 150): 26Comments:
Ira, Kuukuuu, Uha Tava, Rapa Renga are some of the scout Nga Tavake, sent by Hotu Matu'a to Easter Island together with Te Ohiro were the first colonists on Easter Island. 27Therefore, the settlement proposes that the co-code is the TB076. It is a silver symbol, preceded by genealogical and list name.
Furthermore, such a readings can account for the lack of TB076 in the unlabelled text on the Small Santiago Plate and in the Kohau Rongorongo text, which are different from those on the Small Santiago Plate Verso, the Santiago Rod and the Honolulu Plate. Cofocus markers are inevitably placed before the name in a list or other very restricted context; one of the functions of this grammar article is to highlight appendices and thus insert bulleted and listed words (Englert, 1948: 333).
That TB076 is low-frequency in most pills does not mean that there are no identifiers; this would be hard to conceive in an early complexity population. This only means that these name are not marked with the notation TB076. Knorosov and Butinov's interpretations of TB076 as documentary literature were inspired by the metoro reads ur, dupu, hua "phallus, offenspring, fruity, fetus" (Fedorova, 1982: 56) and the images of the character "phallus".
We know that what is a symbol should have no apparent influence on its phonemetic value, especially if it is a single syllable for example (see Stuart, 1987). Nevertheless, it can be explained why the symbol "phallus" co spells: the syllabian value (ko) can be deduced by means of the Rapanui kohio expression "miembro viril/penis"; see also kohio-hanga "cópula carnal/copulation" (Englert, 1948: 462)4.
Firstly, in the place of a genealogical track, Tub200 is shown on the Small Santiago Table (Fig. 4). It is also widely used and produces ABAB, BABA, AAAA and AAA-sequence combined with other characters that speak for its Phonetic character.
In addition, the Kohau Rongorongo lyrics labeled TB076 are rare. Secondly, the characters TB076-200 in the genealogical code coincide with the syllable character (te) in terms of kte and kt. Some of the name listings with k ote in folkloristic lyrics (The War between Tuu and Hotu-Iti II, in Métraux, 1940: 83): k teToki Heu, Toki Heu, k teToki Punipuni, Toki Punipuni, k teToki Rengorengo.
30 The following equation summarizes the way the name patterns are interpreted in the Kohau Rongorongo passages suggested in this paper: A] [B] -C-[D] E, where A (=TB076) is the notation of the co-focus markers that appear before person identifiers in name registers (and especially in genealogies) and are missing in other relationships; A is a name that can be omitted; C is a name that can be written with one or more characters;
The name of the Rongorongo tablet is the possession and meaning"[Son] of the Father]", which is unconfirmed in the Santiago Small Tablet in genetic history, but may appear in other name on the Kohau Rongorongoable. 31 To my understanding, the only fact that speaks against this is the name model.
It proposes that the track is positioned exactly between the co-focus and name. On the other hand, Sebastian Englert (1948: 333) wrote that k is mainly used before person persons, especially after titles: In fact, the last construct in folk lyrics is together with the construct, where e.g. a cover with or without an item follows the person's name with the co-subject marker:
Nevertheless, I think it is sensible to believe that the name could be incorporated into the person's name - such a phenomena is witnessed in many early rather complicated companies. Furthermore, the structure with a name preceded by a name will appear either highlighted or untagged with an item with person name, sometimes in folkloric text.
33Data obtained by structure analyses of indeciphered script have great promise to provide information about the content and purpose of a text (see e.g. Urcid 2001). We may use the information at our disposition to understand the content and purpose of Kohau Rongorongo-Texte. We should also try to use the information for this purpose, otherwise we run the danger of providing lectures and interpretation that make no meaning in the context of pre-European Easter Island.
33 It has already been mentioned that it is logical and rational to anticipate that the Kohau Rongorongo pills contain either chieftains' genealogy or conquered enemy listings (Routledge 1919: 249; Knoche 1939; Butinov and Knorosov, 1956; Guy, 1998a). In view of what we know about pre-European Polynesia in general and Easter Island in particular, both of the above interpretation make good business sense. a....
Kohau Rongorongo lyrics were an important medium of socio-political inclusion on Easter Island. As the results presented above show, familyalogy on the Small Santiago Tablet, Verso, is not strictly speaking familyalogy, although real familyalogies were probably also made.
This is a genealogy segment that has been spelled in the opposite order and included in a namelist that obviously relates to the most famous name there. In addition, three Kohau Rongorongo lyrics differ in their genres: The Honolulu tablet contains a partial title labelled tablet listing (2) in opposition, the text on the Santiago staff contains inserts labeled TB000, and (3) in the text on the Small Santiago tablet six sets of Santiago name - from 3 to 13 name ( "Table 2") - are divided by text scraps that are not labeled TB076.
Numeric identifies the space between two adjacent characters TB076 or TB200, in terms of the number of characters between them; the family history is highlighted by the line; the text not highlighted with TB076 is underscored. Numeric identifies the space between two adjacent characters TB076, in terms of the number of characters between them; [.....] identifies corrupted characters; * is TRITLE1 and *** is TRITLE3.
36 Although the information is insufficient to draw definitive inferences, it is possible to contrast these three lyrics in their genre with the following types of Kohau Rongorongo board, of which only the local people' described the name: Rongorongo: koohau or te tanga mat "tablets of the dead" to note the lives of men who died; koohau or te rankga "tablets of fugitives" to note the lives of refugees and detainees; koohau orika " platets of people " to note the lives of persons who were killed or offered up; and, less likely, koohau ta'u "tablets of years", the birth records of tanga ta'u ta'u (Métraux, 1940):
Some of the island's inhabitants interpret konohau ta'u as a "birth register" different from the usual "annals of the past". Interestingly, the plaques with the name of the men offered up, named king uka, were hung on every pile of tombstones afhu (see bone 1939: 32).
Numeric identifies the space between two adjacent characters TB076 or TB000, in terms of the number of characters between them; [.....] identifies corrupted characters; * is TRITLE1, ** is TRITLE2 and *** is TRITLE3. A-Tahua Tablet, B-Aruku-Kurenga Tablet, E-Keiti Tablet, H - Large Santiago Tablet, I - Santiago Rod, N - Small Wiener Tablet, A - Large St.-Petersburg Tablet, Q - Small St.-Petersburg Tablet, R - Atua-Mata-Riri Tablet, S - Large Washington Tablet; r and v - Recto and Verso pages, a and a - Pages a and bin.
65The structural analyses from a conservation perspective make it possible to propose a more sophisticated and coherent definition of the name in the Kohau Rongorongo passages compared to the initial suggestion of Nikolai Butinov and Yuri Knorosov and finally to substantiate their interpretations of the segment on the Small Santiago Tablet as a familyalogy.
The Kohau Rongorongo typeface is promising to be seen as a logosyllabic system that uses syllabary and Phonetic additions and does not skip grammar markings if the actual use of the word allows it to be omitted. It is in line with the ethno-historical information available to us and what we know about the cultural organisation of pre-European Easter Island.
Another example of artifical bilingualism is the provisionally identifiable title, which can be used for the recognition and checking of pronunciation of characters certified as their components.