Where R the Cook IslandsSituated where R is the Cook Islands
COC ICELANDS - 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand - Te Ara
The Cook Group has 15 islands with a surface area of less than 100 sqm. You can divide the islands into a north and a south group. There are eight islands in the south: two volcano islands, Rarotonga and Aitutaki, four elevated volcano islands of different sizes and heights (Mangaia, Mauke, Atiu and Mitiaro) and two small islands with corals, Takutea and Manuae.
All the seven islands in the north are Penrhyn, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Pukapuka, Palmerston, Nassau and Suwarrow. It is a round islet with a 2,000-foot deep vulcanic base, encircled by a deep half a millimeter deep wetland and deep corals, the center of administration and the major dock.
The Aitutaki (.461 acres) is an atoll-shaped volcano isle. It is located on the northwestern edge of an approximately triangle-land. In the centre of the islands are low vulcanic mounds in various preparation states. While the Cook Group is within the hurricane zone, heavy storms are seldom. Southeastern islands have a temperate and even weather, an average of 75° C and an average of 85 in rain.
Rarotonga and Mangaia creeks. North atoll' s weather is warm and the supply of fresh air is difficult due to the porosity of the ground and the lack of rain. Maori Cook Islands are Polynesians with a similar tongue and custom to New Zealand's Maoris.
In the five years between the 1956 and 1961 ethnic groups, the group' overall size grew by an astonishing 10-1 percent. In the last people' s enumeration (25 September 1961) the island communities were Rarotonga 8,676, Aitutaki 2,582, Atiu 1,266, Mangaia 1,877, Mauke 785, 1,006 Manihiki, Pukapuka 718, 319 Ramahanga, 628 Penrhyn, 307 Mitiaro, 86 Palmerston, 109 Nassau, 18 Manuae and 1 Suwarrow - a grand totality of 18,378 inhabitants.
More than 84 percent of the entire populace lives on the South Islands and more than 47 percent of all Cook Islanders are on Rarotonga, where there is a dense populace of over 300 inhabitants on the sq. m... In 1962, the high birth rates of just under 50 per 1,000 inhabitants are not offset by child mortalities of 48 per 1,000 births, nor by the Cook Islanders' migration to New Zealand, which is about four to one higher than their arrival number.
The Cook Islands (and Niue) are still experiencing continuous migration to New Zealand. Of course, the exercise is driven by the opportunities for travelling and does not yet pose major difficulties in New Zealand. Since the Cook Islanders are New Zealand nationals, there are no immigration barriers to New Zealand.
The vast majority are followers of the Christian Church of the Cook Islands, an organisation of the London Missionary Society. Twenty-seven generation ago Rarotonga was populated by two chieftains and their tribe - Karika from Samoa and Tangier from Tahiti. Mangaia, Aitutaki, Atiu, Takutea, Mitiaro and Manuae were found by Captain Cook in 1773.
In 1789 Rarotonga was attended by the Bounty. Cumberland' s occupation under the command of Captain Goodenough was the first European to arrive at Rarotonga (1814). In 1823 the priest John Williams and the mission instructors arrived from Endeavour and established the first true Rarotonga relationship between Europeans and Maori.
When Pukapuka and Raphaanga were discovered in Spain in 1595 and 1606, the North Islands were discovered in stages. Until the 1890s, the London Missionary Society's emissaries were the dominant gubernators and legislators in the Cook Islands. In 1888 the South Islands were proclaimed Britain's patronage, and most of the north group was simultaneously annihilated by Britain's navy ships.
One British resident was based in Rarotonga in 1890 and founded islands councilors on each of the South Islands and a federal parliament in Rarotonga. The north and south islands were taken into New Zealand in June 1901 following a request from the chieftains of Rarotonga, Atiu, Mauke and Mitiaro.
From 1901 to 1946, the Cook Islands administration was led by the Rarotonga Residential Commissioner, who was based on most of the Outlying Islands. Every isle had its own council chaired by the local authority and, in the case of Rarotonga, by the local commissioner.
The Cook Islands Council on Legislation was established in 1946. Meetings were held in Rarotonga each year and were attended by Maori officials from most of the group's islands and a large number of its officials. To a large extent, the Council was an consultative institution without budgetary and restricted legislation power. After a Belshaw Stace report in 1954, a 1956-57 constitution review and the 1956 imposition of municipal personal incomes taxes were prepared, the Council of Legislators was restored by an important change to the Cook Islands Act (1957) as the Cook Islands Representive Assembly with extended legal power.
They had 14 members chosen by the Maori voters of the various islands by popular ballot, seven from the various Islands Councilors, one member from Europe and four officials. The Residence Commissioner had a deciding cast, but not an intentional ballot. It took charge of revenues in the Cook Islands.
In 1962, as the first in a chain of moves towards full self-management, the Assembly took full control of all revenues. That same year, an executive committee of the Assembly was set up to exert all the governmental policies conferred on it by the Assembly or the Resident Commissioner.
In 1962, the Assembly proclaimed self-governance to be its goal for the Group. It stressed that the Cook Islanders wanted to keep their New Zealand nationality. In its 1963 meeting, the Assembly elected one head of affairs of state and four other members to create a new executive committee or "shadow cabinet", with each member assigned responsibilities for specific departments of state.
The members of the Assembly were led at their own wish by three specialist advisors who prepared a schedule that had been endorsed by the Assembly and the New Zealand authorities. In 1965, this ensured full self-management and the continuation of cooperation with New Zealand, while the Cook Islanders remained New Zealanders.
A new 22-member legislature will have full autonomous rule. It is supervised by a chamber of members of the Assembly, chaired by a Prime Minister. The country will maintain the Cook Islands' foreign relations and will maintain the Cook Islands' triennial grant payments.
The Queen will be represented by a New Zealand civil servant who will also act as head of state and New Zealand government in the Cook Islands. The New Zealand Parliament adopted a law on the Cook Islands Constitution in 1964 to create the necessary mechanisms for these policy changes that will come into force when the Cook Islands Assembly adopts the Constitution.
Most of the Cook Islands' traditionally Maori community has disintegrated, and today the Cook Islands' community is based on the Maori people. Working and working terms differ from place to place. As a matter of principle, the north islands sustain an existential life, whereby coppra provides a very restricted harvest. Exports are strongly strengthening sub-sistence farming in the South Islands, and small ancillary industry and maritime links offer alternate work.
The Cook Islands Industrial Unions of Workers are the only trade unions covering all groups of employees in the group. Cook Islands government is the group's biggest employers. Government's Social Developpment Department focuses on developing communities with the aim of enhancing good relations between individuals and the government, increasing the standard of living and fostering management and teamwork.
Accommodation standards in the Group are being improved under the influence of government-sponsored residential building programs. North group dwellings are predominantly of the straw weaving style ("kikau"), but building with durable material is more common on the south isles. Cook Islands economies are becoming increasingly robust, with exports of lemon fruits (oranges, mandarin, tangerine and grapefruit), tomato, banana, pineapple, coffe and coprah becoming increasingly important.
The two apparel and jewelry mills in Rarotonga generate annual export sales of just under £200,000. Only the only export from the sand-coloured islands are Kopra and Perlmutt (from the Manihiki and Penrhyn lagoons). 1961 a business cannery was opened in Rarotonga. The group' main sub-sistence cultures are the coconut and seafood, complemented by small amounts of tarot and banana on the North Islands and coconut, banana, cassava and tarot on the South Islands.
All the islands bake bread. Cook Islands Ministry of Agriculture is conducting a research and expansion programme in the fruitful South Islands to strengthen the Group's agribusiness. In recent years, the focus has been on the re-planting of lemon fruits, and the share of lemon imports in overall sales has now risen to over 25 percent.
The Cook Islands have 70 cooperatives, more than a third of them on Rarotonga. The Ministry of Cooperation records, manages and examines the companies and operates a co-operative bank, which contributes to the consolidation of the co-operative movements. Cook Islands Legislative Assembly has full financial oversight of the Group.
Municipal revenues account for around 17 percent of overall outlays. This shortfall will be offset by the New Zealand government through three-year lump-sum subsidies to the Cook Islands Legislative Assembly, which will be fully budget controlled by the Assembly. The New Zealand language is used in the Cook Islands.
No commercial banking institutions exist, but the Cook Islands Post is a post office of the Postal Savings Bank in Auckland. An amended New Zealand custom duty is in effect. In 1964 it imported 1,502,659 pounds, 70 percent of which came from New Zealand. Inter-island transportation has always been a distance-issue.
A 13-knot powerboat weighing 2,750 tons, the Moana Roa, is operated by the Department of Island Territories. Departures between Auckland and Rarotonga usually take place at three- to four-weekly interval and are served on other group islands in the south when cargo is offered. Matson-Liner go to Rarotonga every three weeks, mainly for people.
Transpacific carriers also call Rarotonga when freight is available, and cruisers, missionships, and boats make casual outings there. None of the islands in the group have a good port. Boats are anchored before the dive in an open sea at Rarotonga and usually sail up and down the other islands outside the cliff.
Both Rarotonga in the southern and Penrhyn in the northern part offer the only moorings in the lagoon for small ships. The small motorboats travel between the islands of the group, transporting passenger and freight. Communication was enhanced from 1961, when the New Zealand government proposed to shipowners to subsidize trade in the Cook Islands.
Allowance will be granted to shipowner' s who are serviced according to certain classed service levels and are available to travel within the group as required by the government. Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn have good runways and Aitutaki also has a floatplane airfield. Every two weeks, Polynesian Airlines make a call in Rarotonga, West Samoa.
The only two islands with a phone line are Rarotonga (with 400 participants) and Aitutaki. In Rarotonga, a government broadcaster has connections to New Zealand, Western Samoa, Fiji and 12 sub-stations on the Cook Islands. Rarotonga Broadcasting Corporation (ZK1ZA), a company of the Social Development Department, sends about 20 lessons of musical and voice programs a week to the group.
The government provides all healthcare and dentistry services free of charge, and a senior physician supervises both the healing and healthcare work in the group. It is supported by three doctors and a dentist's nurse, 16 Cook Island residents and three residents, as well as on-the-ground nurses led by a female and female nurse from Europe.
Rarotonga Hospital has 57 hospital bed places. Rarotonga also has a 70-bed sanitarium for TB. On Aitutaki, Mangaia, Atiu, Manihiki, Pukapuka and Penrhyn there are domestic clinics and on the other islands there are pharmacies. and the smaller islands, donors. Cook Islanders' general wellbeing is good.
Even though one in 100 people is diagnosed with this condition, 75 percent of cases can be taken home. In the Outlying Islands, a filaria checkup is conducted with outstanding results by a New Zealand Medicinal Research Council health official. They have an infertile death ratio of less than 50 per 1,000 life deaths and there are over 30 children's hospitals in Rarotonga.
Governments offer education on all permanent islands and towns. It has 24 state elementary and secondary education institutions (1965-4,490 in total), one secondary education institution (Tereora College-448 students), three secondary education institutions (in Aitutaki, Atiu and Mangaia) and one teacher's education institution (167 students). There are also six missionary colleges on five islands (397 in total).
Most of the syllabus is New Zealand syllabus, with an accent on the specific needs of the Cook Islands. Of course, English is the most challenging topic for Cook Islanders. New Zealand Government Training Scheme remains the most important means of training select Cook Islanders to New Zealand norms for various responsibilities on the islands.
More than 100 Cook Islanders are being educated in New Zealand through the programme in New Zealand's education facilities, as well as in New Zealand's education centres, vocational and academic institutions. Cook Island government's major issue is the lack of skilled teaching staff to pay for the rapid increase in tuition fees.