?????, VOH-log-dah[http://www.vologda-city. ru/]) is a city in the northwest of Russia. Wologda, town and administrative centre of the Vologda region, North-West Russia. Vologda is becoming more and more popular with Russian locals, while it remains undeservedly undiscovered by international visitors.
Wologda oblast, Russia guidebook
From the 5th to 7th century A.D. the area began to develop by the Slav people, resulting in the assembly of the indigenous Finno-Ugric people. Krivichi were the first slavonic settlers of the Vologda area. The area became the scene of the Novgorod rivalries that established the cities of Veliky Ustyug, Vologda, Totma and the Vladimir dukes, who slowly subjugated the area.
This area was incorporated into the Rostov princedom in 1207, from which the Princedom of Belozersk was divided in 1238. At the time of the wars, the Novgorod Republic, Tver and the Moscow duchies were once again in war. The Tver sovereign Svyatoslav Yaroslavich Vologda pillaged and burnt in 1273.
The monastery Kirillo-Belozersky was founded in the fourteenth c.. The Belozersky Kremlin was constructed in the fifteenth c.. Vologda area ( "Velikiy Ustyug" in particular) became a base for Moscow's northeast and eastern extension to Ugra (1465), Perm (1472) and Vyatka (1489). From 1567 Ivan IV often spent three and a half years in Vologda, observing the building of the fort and the stony cloister.
Vologda's estates were of great importance for Ivan IV's politics. There are several cities in the north of the city. Vologda occupies an important place in the designs of Ivan the Terrible, which was a kind of "gate" to the White Sea, to the Trans-Siberian, to Western Siberia and Europe.
During the unrest of 1612, Vologda was looted again and many church and other structures were burnt down. During the 16th and 17th century Vologda took a particular place in the creation of commercial relationships with the world. Several times he remained in Vologda, in the home of the Netherlands businessman Gutman.
Today the exhibition of the Nineteenth and Nineteenth Centuries houses his clothing (caftan, pants-culottes) and Posthuman masks, the mug of A. Menshikov, many objects that mark the age of Peter the Great. St. Petersburg and the growth of Baltic Sea trading have significantly diminished the importance of Vologda and decoupled the city from new trading lanes.
The Vologda Gnubernia (province) was founded in the eighteenth c... The majority of the cities in the present Vologda area were built during the Catherine' s administration reform: Because of the lack of large constructions and companies, they have been able to retain the historic image and zeitgeins.
Today in many cities of the area whole boulders of wood carved buildings have been preserved. A number of small cities are recognised as historic landmarks of great importance. From the beginning of the nineteenth centuary the trend of top-class work began. The Vologda top was very popular and its glory quickly transcended Russia's frontiers.
Vologda's top manufacturers' high quality product was very much valued at the fairs in Paris, Brussels and other important fairs. The opening of the waterways connecting important business centres of the Czech Republic led to a shift in trading from Vologda to Rybinsk. Vologda's importance as a trading centre declined. Railway building, the formation of the steamship had a significant influence on the evolution of the Vologda area.
A rail link between Vologda and Yaroslavl was opened in 1872, in 1898 - with Arkhangelsk, in 1905 - with St. Petersburg and Vyatka. The first dairies of the Russian Empire in the area were opened in 1881. The Vologda Butters" label quickly became very popular. For five month in 1918, Vologda became the "diplomatic capitol of Russia", a place where the 11 biggest nations of the earth were represented by messages and mission.
The Vologda area was founded in its present boundaries on 23 September 1937. There were no armed missions in the Vologda area during the Second World Peace. For this reason, no damage or destruction has been done to any of the area' s historic and artistic heritages. The mighty industrial power that was established in Cheepovets after the conflict assisted the Vologda Krai to stay one of Russia's wealthiest regions even in a time of crises.
The Vologda area lies in the northeastern part of the Eastern European lowlands. It is a land full of aquatic life. Lake Onega in the northern part of the Krai is linked to the Volga by the Volga-Baltic Canal. Approximately 12% of the terrain is marshy. Major regional centres are Cheepovets (318,000), Vologda (311,000), Sokol (37,000), Veliky Ustyug (31,600).
It is an important traffic junction of Russia, linking the whole of Europe with the Ural Mountains and Siberia. M8 Kholmogory (Moscow-Yaroslavl-Vologda-Arkhangelsk) trunk road runs through the Vologda area. Vologda region's wealth of past, high level of monument conservation and even historic cities have contributed to the tourist industry's growth.
The Severstal, Cherepovets steel rolling mill, Cherepovets Metallwerk, PhosAgro-Cherepovets, Vologda Bearing Plant, Sokol Woodworking Plant. It is an exporter of large quantities of food: dairy products, fowl, meats, the Vologda dairy's renowned butters. A number of tradtional handicrafts have been preserved to this day: the Vologda top, the biggest centre of excellence in Russia - Snezhinka company; one-of-a-kind handicrafts of Veliky Ustyug - Shamogodskaya whitewashed oak and silver plating.
The Vologda area has a wealth of historic and artistic heritages. There are more than 700 historic and patrimonial sites in the area. The majority of visitors come to Vologda, Kirillov and Cherepovets. The Vologda is one of the most important centres of woodwork in Russia, characterized by its variety of styles - from classical to modern.
Interesting municipal groups exist in Vologda, Belozersk, Kirillov, Ferapontovo, Totma (with its own architectural school) and Ustyuzhna. The town of Cherepovet is the birth place of the painter V.V. Vereshchagin and his brothers N.V. Vereshchagin, who created the formula for the renowned Vologda-butters. One of the Vologda region's nature treasures is the Darwin State Reserve, the "Russian North" in Kirillov County.
There is also a good basis for the growth of so-called country life in the area. Further sights are the city of Vytegra (Onega Petroglyphs), the towns of Sizma and Nyuksenitsa (ancient religious rites), Ustye - the centre of boating, Gryazovets - an old trading city with farms and gardens, Tarnoga - renowned for producing honeys, Veliky Ustyug - the birth place of Father Frost.
Vologda as a part of the North of Russia has succeeded in preserving a significant number of historical relics of the ethnical inheritance of the Russians (songs, legend, epic, chronicles).