Us Naval Base in SamoaWe naval base in Samoa
Every white painted column tapers upwards from a two-foot rectangular base. As Apelu had learnt this concept from a touristy. He was a kind of lecturer. He' had appeared one morning when a cruiser visited the harbour and had spat out all his grey-haired rose-coloured daily guests to walk around the city centre or take picturesque coaches.
He photographed the headquarter and had asked Apelu - still in uniforms at the time - to be standing under one of the bows "to give the standard and colour of the place", he said. He was not sure if he liked being called a "local color", but you had to be kind to these guys.
He was talking about the edifice and its story. As a child, Apelu knew this place, passed it, drove past it in busses, but he had never really thought about it. This was the main precinct, a place you didn't want to see from the inside.
This was one of those old whitewashed inner-city houses, like the court house or the customs house. They had a heap of similar old houses that were always run down and needed painting around the naval base that was once the centre of the old arsenal. All these old houses, which were constructed by the US Navy, were now part of a historical part of the city that had been described in a work.
For example, this edifice was over ninety years old. The Fita Fita Fita Guard constructed it as a barrack and commandery. And Apelu knew about the Fita Fita Guard.
It was more the geographic than the operative name, later "Peon" and eventually "pharmacist" of the Samoa group of Pacific Ocean Archipelago (1941/45). The Samoa is a group of 15 islets with a surface area of 1,170 square kilometres (3030 km²). Situated in the centre of Polynesia, about 3700 km southwest of Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian archipelago and 3860 km northeast of Sydney in Australia's easterly region, the Samoan archipelago was split in 1941 between New Zealand (the 1914 conquered Westward Germany Islands) and the USA.
There are American Samoa in the US at 171° W and Tutuila with its magnificent mooring in Pago Pago, while the New Zealand Isles of Samoa and Upolu with its worse mooring in Apia and Savaiâa. In 1940, the USA began developing civilian installations on Tutuila as part of a string of strongholds from the US W rim to the Philippines archipelago via Australia.
Marinegouverneur of August 8, 1940 was Captain Lawrence Wild, and due to the worsening state of the Pacific Ocean, no unauthorized ships or planes were allowed within 3 mile (.8 km) of Tutuila Isle or the near Rosenatoll from May 15, 1941. Like in other Pacific regions of the USA, the improvement of the Tululia naval station began in the 1940s, among them an airport of the US Marine Corps in Tafuna, about 6.4 km southward of Pago Pago.
It was partly finished in April 1942 and fully functional in June and finally had two take-off and landing strips, one of 6,000 feet (1830 m) and the other of 3,000 feet (915 m). The majority of the building work served to supply equipment for the arriving naval defense troops. In the same year, a airbase with a 6,000-foot ( "1830 m") airstrip was built in Leone on the south-west plane of the island, 7 leagues (11.25 km) from Pago Pago, in whose port a sea plane base was built.
March 15, 1941, the Seventh Marine Defense Battalion reached Pago Pago as the first part of the US Marine Corps force in the South Pacific and the first to be sent to the defence of an isle. Battalion artillery was set up at Bluntâs and Breakers Points to protect the port of Pago Pago.
Bataillon also took over the formation of the First Samoan Bataillon, the US Navy Corps Reserves, the only naval reserves force in the Second World War in use. after the Japanese assault on Pearl Harbor, they were mobilized and stayed in action until January 1944, when they were taken into the new naval barracks, Naval Station, Tutuila, Samoa Islands.
Second Marine Division founded the Second Marine Reinforced Base of the Eighth Marines in California, and this first expedition team left San Diego, California to arrive Pago Pago in'Picador' on January 19, 1942. On 11 January 1942, the only operation carried out on the island was a fire on the port of Pago Pago by a U-boat from Japan, but this did not cause any harm and the only dead man was a naval commander who was slightly injured.
Aircraft Group 13's first components came in on March 11 to perform aerial missions. An American Navy Patrouille Flugboottruppe was affiliated to the group and was thus the first authority of a US Navy Fliegertruppe, which was subordinate to a naval group. Brigadier General Henry L. Larsen, who became American Samoa's army gubernator.
Vessels supplied by the fraternity came back to the Continent USA with members of the naval station and defense battalion. Tutuila's plans to keep the Tutuila in small groups around the Isle, in places where they would probably have been conquered in detail if the Japs had not taken up their "Fs" plans, New Caledonia and Fiji and the Samoa groups of islands in July 1942: the Japonese unity that was assigned to this mission was Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi's "Kawaguchi" Dedachment with the 41 st st storm.
On April 29, the 2nd Brigade and MAG-13 came under the leadership of the Defense Force, the Samoan Group. The group was the equivalence of a department and was led by Major General Charles F. B. Price, who also supervised the naval forces in Western Samoa. From August 1942 to September 1943, the Defense Force assisted the occupancy of Ellice about 600 northeast mile.
Tutuila arrived in July 1942 to substitute the subcontractors, but this "Seabee" group was then sent to EspÃritu Santo. In October 1942 the 8th Marines left for Guadalcanal and were superseded by the 3d Marines. In March 1943 the 2nd Brigade was dissolved, but the 3D Marines stayed on Tutuila until May.
At the Replacement Training Center, Tutuila, between December 1942 and July 1943, seven naval replacement units set up on the US eastern seaboard were educated and acclimatized. Defense Force, Samoa Group was dissolved in December 1943. Tutuila's importance diminished as the Pacific War went beyond the Solomon Isles group and the dismantlement of a number of installations was ordered in February 1944 in an August completion of operations, and by January 1945 only a small military unit was left to provide a naval base that was used solely for distress landing and communication.
Marinekaserne was closed down in August 1945. Further westwards, in the part of the group managed by New Zealand, the Isle of Upolu was code-named'Strawhat' (later'Hour') and the Isle of Savaiâi was code-named'Strawman' (later'Trap' and finally'Lapover'). They are located both to the north and to the north of the Apolima road, which is 12.9 km across, and Tutuila in American Samoa is 36 km (58 km) eastward and southeast of Upolu Islet.
Westsamoa consists of the two large isles of Upolu and Savaiâi ('Strawhat' later'Hour', and'Strawman' later'Trap' and finally'Lapover'), two much smaller isles and five isles with a combined area of 1,133 square mile ('2934.5 km²) and stretches along a west-north-west-east-east-southeast axe. Each of the island is hilly and its vulcanic origin has given it a very rich bed.
CoÂconut palm trees are grown in large estates on Upolu and Savaiâi, generally on the coast planes, which are between 3 and 4 mile (. 8 and 6. 4 km) in width. Whilst there is plenty of sea on the two large islets, there is a shortage on the smaller ones.
It rains from October to March and March is the warmest and July and August the coldest. A 47-mile (71.5 km) long Upole islet on its east-west route and 15 mile (.24 km) broad with an area of 434 square m² (.1125 km²), and its highest point is 3,607 ft² (1099 m).
Apia, the biggest city and capitol of West Samoa, is situated on the northern shore around the small port of Apia, and the biggest city is Salani on the south-east shore. From Apia there was a street around the west end of the isle and a country lane followed the remainder of the coastline around the isle.
There was a narrow-gauge railroad from the port of Saluafata, 11 leagues (17.7 km) eastwards of Apia, to the interior to service coir orchards. There was a second train 2 mile (. 3. 2 km) from a point 2 mile (. 3. 2 km) towards the eastern part of the town of Faleofo near the west end of the island.
Before the Second World War there were no airports on the isles. The Apolima Strait has two islands: the smaller one is Apolima, about halfway between Upolu and Savaiâi, and the bigger one is Manono is about 3 mile (. 4. 8 km) before the westerly end of Upoluâs. Savaiâi is 43 mile ('69 km) long on its east-west axe and 28.
Mile 5 (46 km) with an area of 654 square kilometers (1694 km²). By the time the US Armed Services entered Western Samoa in 1942, the island had a total of 400 New Zealanders and Europeans, 3,000 people of combined Western and Polish origin, 61,000 Samoans and some Chinese and Melanesians.
When the Second Marine Brigade came to protect American Samoa in January 1942, they coordinated with the New Zealand government to allow the USA to take charge of the defense of West Samoa and the Isle of Valais in France. Until then Upolu had only been sheltered by 157 New Zealand New Zealand Forces.
The seventh defence battalion was sent from Tutuila to Upolu in March and the New Zealand defence force joined. Meanwhile, the Third Marine Branch around the seventh Marine Corps was founded by the First Marine Division in North Carolina, which arrived in Upolu on May 8. In September, the seventh Marines were sent to Guadalcanal and the Guadalcanal Branch was placed under the control of the Defense Force, Samoan Group.
Arrived at the end of July 1942, the Twenty-second Marines were transferred to the 3rd Brigade and stationed in Apia. In May 1943 the 2nd Marines were replaced by the 3rd Brigade, but stayed in Apia under the immediate control of the Defense Force until they left in mid-November.
From May 1943, the 147th infantry of the US military (separately), after the completion of surgeries on Guadalcanal and New Georgia, was assigned to the third division. Two air defence regiments, one on Upolu and the other on Savaiâi, were used to reinforce the military command.
On April 1, 1942, the Lake Bays arrived in Upolu to design a naval aerial base and a support harbor, and in July an airport with a 1220 m long take-off and landing strip was built in Faleolo near the northwestern end of the island. Upolu's flight installations were primarily used for defensive purposes, but also as a waypoint between Tutuila and the Valais Isles in the east and the Fiji group of Isles in the southwest.
It was ordered to close the base in February 1944, but was not concluded until November of that year.