The teraphim (Hebrew: ??? teraph; plural: ?

???? teraphim) is a Hebrew word from the Bible that can only be found in the plural of uncertain etymology. In spite of its plurality, teraphim can refer to individual objects, using the Hebrew plural of excellence. Teraphim's translation into Greek and its use in Scripture gives an excellent idea of the nature of these symbols. Teraphim comes from the Hebrew word hatterapim, which in the Bible usually refers to household or family gods. by TERAPHIM (Heb. ?????????), household gods.

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The teraphim (Hebrew: ??? Teraphim; plural: ??? Teraphim) is a Biblical term in Hebraic that can only be found in the plurals of unsafe etymology[1]. The term teraphim is declared as shameful in classic rabbinic literature[3] (rejected by contemporary etymologists), and in many Bible interpretations in England it is interpreted as idol or domestic god(s), although its precise meanings are more specifically than this, but exactly unfamiliar.

At 1 Samuel 19 Michal assists her husbands David to flee from their fathers Saul. Then she lets him out through a tunnel and deceives Saul's men that a teraphim in their beds is actually David. It also relates to "the" teraphim, which means that there was a place for teraphim in every home.

Toorn asserts that "there is no sense of outrage at the appearance of Teraphim in David's house"[6], but the same is used in 1 Samuel 15:23, where Samuel Saul reprimands and says to him: "Guessing is like injustice and Teraphim". This is about the fact that insurrection is as terrible as teraphim, whose use is therefore condemned as doing false deeds.

"Teraphim speak rubbish, and soothsayers see falsehood. The dreamer tell wrong tales and give empty comfort. Casper Labuschagne, "Teraphim: a new suggestion for his etymology", Vetus Testamentum 16[1966] 116. Van Der Toorn, "The Light of Cuneiform Scripture in the Natural History of Biblical Teraphim", CAQ 52 (1990), 203-222.


This is a plurilingual expression of unfamiliar origin used in the Old Testament to refer to the brute Semite household deities, whose worship was passed down from the early days of nomad migrations. Teraphim's interpretation of the concept by the Grecian texts and its use in the Holy Scripture gives an outstanding impression of the character of these signs.

Aquila thus reproduces the term through "figures"; the Septuagint in Genesis through "images", in Ezekiel through "carved images", in Zechariah through "oracles" and in Hosea through "manifest objects" (?????). Authorized versions often rewrite the term as in Judges svii. and Hos. iii. 4, but often translate it "images", as in Gen. axxi.

Pictures " is depicted in I Sam. the xixth, 13 also, "idols" in Zech. the xth, 2 and "idolatry" in I Sam. the 23rd. In Hebrew, the Hebrew language is considered a plurality of excellency. As Elohim calls "gods" and "God", the shape "teraphim" applies to every individual subject as well as to the whole category (cf. I Sam. XXI. 13 and Gen. XXI. 19).

The fact that Teraphim really were pictures of man and greatness can be clearly seen from I Sam. nix. 13, where Michal, Saul's daugther, puts one into David's beds to hide his flight from her angry sire. In 19 Rachel mentioned that without her husband's knowing, she stolen the Teraphim belonging to her dad Laban and, when she wanted to hide them, placed them under the camel's cabinets and seated on them (Gen. 34xxi.).

Natur of the worship. Teraphim worship's natures and slow decline also seem completely clear. Teraphim was already early considered as a representative of true deities who were equipped with godly characteristics (cf. 30 where Laban the Jacob for Rachel's stealing of the Teraphim asked, "Why did you steal my heaven?

"that the Teraphim religion was virtually in an airplane of Yhwh-worshipping. To Judge Phoenix. and Teraphim, which were used together with "an engraved image" and "a melted image" of sterling silver devoted to Yhwh; the characters were obviously Yhwh-paintings.

Teraphim's value to the lineage and the people is shown by the testimony that Rachel has stolen them from their fathers (Gen. Phoxi. 19), and that when the Danites spied on the Laish country, they violently removed not only the Yhwh pictures just referred to, but also the Epod, the Teraphim and the Levite clergyman from the Micha household (see Judge Xviii).

There is no doubt that in earlier days teraphim veneration was accepted by the Yhwh Faith, as for example by I Sam. Phoenix. 13 (the tale of Michal, the Saul's daughter), where it is implicitly suggested that a teraphim was an ordinary item of furnishings in the home of a faithful successor of Yhwh.

19 is also referred to in Teraphim without comments, although Prof. H. P. Smith ("Samuel", S. xxxiv.) thinks that in the last passages there is a hint of Sarcasmus. One thing is certain, however, that in the Yhwh worship Teraphim soon became an objekt of unequivocal conviction. James orders that the "foreign gods" (), probably referring to teraphim paintings, be put away from his house and bury.

Moreover, in I Sam. xv. 23 Samuel in his reprimand to Saul is made to class Teraphim with injustice () and insurrection (). Josiah, the Protestant King, eliminated the sorcerers and sorcerers, as well as the teraphim and gods (), all of which are summarized as "abominations" (II. Xxii. 24).

"because the teraphim have said vain things, and the soothsayers have seen a falsehood; and they have recounted falsehood. From the above quotes it will emerge that the most important role of the Teraphim, at least after the spreading of the Yhwh worship over Israel, was that of prophecy.

Obviously the pictures were mainly used for ornacular uses, although nothing is known about the way they were advised; however, it is likely that they were used in the context of the pouring of the holy batch (cf. Zech. x. 2; Ezek. 2xi. 26[A. V. 21]). A reference to an epith in the context of teraphim (Judge Phoenix 5, Phoenix 20) is a strange use of this term, which in these passage merely depicts "a wearable item used or modified by the clergyman in agreement with the oracle" (cf.

Moore, "Richter", S. 379, and see Richter fiii. 27, in which an ephood is clearly described as an objekt of prophecy). The use of the term seems to be completely different from the so-called letter of recommendation (e.g. xxviii. 6 ff.), which refers to a high-fashioned piece of clothing of the same name (see Ephod).

Hos. iii. 4, Hebr.: "For the sons of Israel shall remain many many days without reigning and without ruler and without sacrifice and without offering and without column and without ephod and without teraphim"). Section II Wise Men Xxii. 24 quoted above makes it clear that the Teraphim had survive in later Judah.

Teraphim's reference in Zech. x. 2 may be due to an archaic trend of the writer of this section (see Zechariah), and in itself would not be enough proof that the Teraphim worship continues into ancient Greece; but if this section is taken in connection with the testimony of Josephus ("Ant").

9, 5) that the custom of taking household goods to foreign lands dominated the Mesopotamic region during his period, it seems very likely that the use of teraphim lasted until the first century of Christianity and possibly even later. Landlords. So it seems, as mentioned above, that Teraphim, like the Roman Lares and Penate, initially depicted household idols worn by the savage Semite neophytes as fetish spirits with their familial influences, and that these divinities were most likely first worshipped as the most important godly object known to the adherents of this worship.

Though nothing is known about the origins of the Teraphim religion, it may have been a surviving act of savage adoration of the forebears; i.e., the pictures may have depicted the idolatrous progenitors of the families they worshipped, and may later have become a kind of Mane' arkula. Among the Israelites the ritual could not be considered tribal, since the divinities in Gen. 4 are called" divinities of the foreign" (A. V." foreign gods").

Ezekiel xx-26 (A. V. 21) states that the King of Babylon consultations and "looked into the liver" Teraphim, i.e. he used both magic conjurations and the usual Babylonian astrology ritual. The Israelites are not unlikely to have received the Teraphim worship from their Aramaic relatives.

Teraphim" is declared by the rabbis as "shameful things" (Yer. 'Ab. Zarah ii. 41b; Tan., Waye?e). The Targumim of On?elos and pseudo-Jonathan render "?almanaya" or "?ilmanaya" (="pictures") to Gen. Phoenix. 19, 34, and by Jonathan's Targum in the other parts of the Bible, except in conjunction with the picture of Micah (Judge Phoenix-5, Xviii-14, 18, 20), where it is made "dema'in

Teraphim's natures are much debated by old comments. 19, the teraphim were made from the mind of a man, a first-born man, who, after being killed, was shaven and then salt and seasoned. Ezra Ibn (on gen. l. c.) draws two explanations of "Teraphim": (1) a sheet of brass with which one can determine the precise moment, and (2) an astrological picture made at a certain moment and under the impact of certain gems that made it linguistic.

13, 16 that the Teraphim had the form of a man. The Teraphim of Laban were indeed gods, but not those of I Sam. l. c., since there could not have been any gods in David's family. Teraphim, he believes, were generally astronomical charts that could be used to teach us what to do in the near to come (cf. ?im?i on I Sam. l.c.).

After repeating the Teraphim legend given by R. Eliezer, the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (section "Waye?e", p. 46b-47a, Leghorn, 1870) explains that they were made of either golden or pure silvery, in the likeness of a man and at a certain time, and that they were revealing the destiny through the influences of the star.

The Teraphim of Laban were from the latter view.

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