Rumania Mineralogy Facts, Map & Map
Romania, South-East European countr. In 1944 Romania was invaded by Russian forces and in 1948 became a U.S.S.R. (Union of Socialist Republics ) satellit. From 1948 to 1989, the state was under the Communists government when the dictatorship of the Rumanian ruler Nicolae Ceau?escu was toppled. It acceded to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 2004 and became a member of the European Union (EU) in 2007.
About a third of the Rumanian countryside is hilly and a third wooded, the rest consists of rolling countryside and plain. It has a significant abundance of indigenous nature: rich agricultural lands, pastureland, forests supplying hardy and softwoods, oil deposits, metal, including the Apuseni Mountains' golden and silvery, many hydroelectric streams and a Black Sea coast where both harbours and spas are located.
Romania's population derives much of its ethnical and culture from European influences, but this old tradition has been constantly reformed by Romania's location on the great migratory itineraries. The Romanians see themselves as descendents of the old Romans, who captured the south of Transylvania under the reign of Trajan in 105 AD, and the Dacians, who were living in the hills just off the Danube plain and in the Transylvanian Basin.
In 271, at the moment of the retreat of Rome under the rule of Kaiser Áurelian, the Romans and the Dacians had married each other, which led to a new people. Not only the Arabic and Eastern Orthodox religions, to which most Romanians belong, but also the Arabic and Arabic languages, originated from the mix of these two nationalities.
Over the next 600 years, the Rumanian countries were used as battlefields for the contradictory aspirations of their neighbors. Romanians could not resist the pressure from the Byzantines and then from the Ottoman Turks in the southern part of Constantinople (now Istanbul) or later from the Habsburg Kingdom in the western part and from Russia in the eastern part.
Wallachia and Moldova were merged in 1859, and in 1877 they declared their autonomy from the Ottoman Empire as Romania. In spite of its belated beginning as a supranational state, Romania spawned several world-famous thinkers in the twentieth-century, among them the composers Georges Enesco, the dramatist Eugène Ionesco, the philosophers Emil Cioran, the religious historian Mircea Eliade and the Nobel Prize winner George E. Palade.
The evening before the Second World War, Rosa Goldschmidt Waldeck (Countess Waldeck) described her most powerful influence on the Romanians: