Republic of VanuatuVanuatu Republic
tu?/ van-WAH-too; Bislama, French IPA: CUSTOMS AND TAX OFFICE.
Vanuatu Republic Constitution
Vanuatu Republic's 1980 constitution is the country's highest act. In Vanuatu, the constitution provides for a pluralistic system of legislation that recognises both the domination of common right (kastom) and the established right. The important thing is that the Constitution returned the property to its usual holders. It says in section 12: "All the lands of the Republic of Vanuatu belong to the tribal customs holders and their descendants."
This also states that "the customs regulations constitute the foundation for the property and use of land". It provides that in the event of litigation over property, the government shall keep the country until the settlement of the litigation and that the government shall establish appropriate usual bodies or mechanisms to settle such litigation.
It also provides for the federal administration to purchase lands in the general interest and to buy lands from domestic customs holders for re-distribution to residents of overpopulated isles. It underlines the importance of decentralization so that those in their region can take part in the governance that falls within the competence of each municipal council, composed of customs chiefs.
It lays down the basic obligations of the Vanuatu tribe.
The country lies in the western part of Australia, the Solomon Islands in the northern part, Fiji in the eastern part and also New Caledonia, which is part of France, in the southern part. The Hydroelectric Power Development Project was carried out on the island of Espiritu Santo, 300 km just to the north of the German state' s capitol Port Vila in 1995.
REPUBLIC OF VANUATU
Inhabitants (1999)3: GDP (1999)4: Fishery share of GDP (1999): Substantial fishing: Fishery production value (2000)9: Wholesale and retail trades (2000)10: Value of imports: The Vanuatu area is a Y-shaped island with about 80 islets, 67 of which are populated and twelve are regarded as important. They and their associated coral cliffs are located between 13-21°S and 166-172°E in the west Pacific Ocean.
Vanuatu's seas are not very vast in comparison to other Pacific island states. As well as the Vanuatu's six counties, which have overall responsibilities for the fishery industry's growth and governance, they are managed by a number of autonomous municipalities. The Vanuatu region divides sea frontiers with New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji.
Vanuatu's unquestionable part of the Vanuatu economy is 680,000 square kilometres. Vanuatu's fishery stocks are being used at sub-sistence, craft and industrylevel. Substantial activity includes inshore and net fishery for groundfish and small marine pelagics, as well as the gathering of seafood and other molluscs.
Substantial fisheries are becoming more and more urbanised, with different shares of the catches being disposed of. The collection of trollechus and beche-de-mer is also carried out in a labour-intensive way typical of sub-sistence-fisheries. However, these types are on sale and make up a precious part of Vanuatu's maritime exports. Handicraft bottom line fisheries primarily focus on deep-sea snapper and grouper, while manual and gillnet fisheries focus on flats.
In the 90s, the average yearly output of deep-sea, marine and freshwater lake fishermen was between 110 and 140 tons. Deepwater fisheries were set up as a follow-up to a number of research into the stock of deeper embankments in the 70s, which indicated the existence of commercial significant populations of deepwater snapper and grouper.
The Village Fisheries Development Projects (VFDP) were launched in 1982 to help encouraging fishermen from the countryside to join the game. As part of the scheme, subsidized vessels, gear and fuels, low-interest lending, education and support for technology and promotion were made available to local fisheries groups. Most of the transport was by sea, as inland navigation in Vanuatu was not sufficient to market it.
Fisheries have become an important means of subsistence for the countryside on some island, but only at considerable expense to the governments, which for over 15 years have subsidised many facets of fisheries with the aid of agri-food. Finally, donors' aid was phased out and most agricultural fisheries centers were shut down.
Fishing continues on the Efate, Espiritu Santo and Malekula Island, where the transport of fishermen and other operating expenses ensure the economic viability of fishing. According to the Ministry of Fisheries, about 20 tonnes of sea bass were landfished in 1999, of which about one ton was for export.
Others have been used to enhance the profitability of small-scale fishery in Vanuatu. Mainly in inshore areas near the countryside and towns, FADs have been used to enhance tuna and related catch opportunities. However, they have only proven to be a sustainable instrument for developing the fishery in areas near city centers, as the high cost of transporting FAD-catched fishery resources, which are usually of low value, is even more constraining economically than demersal resources.
Small trolling for FAD associated species is found in these areas. In 1999, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry intended to launch a three-year FAD programme with UNDP funding, but the donors did not agree. From Port Vila there are eight sports fishery chart boats of 6-12 metres.
Decorative fishs and "living rocks" (microorganism covered reefs used for conditioning seawater aquariums) are gathered around Efate and transported to international stores. The Fisheries Ministry reported that the value of freshwater tank farmed in 1999 and 2000 was approximately USD 38,000 and USD 15,000 respectively. Fishing were small boats (10-15 m) either held either on site or operated under charters with either regional or JVs.
In 1995, one ship was in service and landed an expected 24 tonnes of fish, two more ships were put into service in 1996. Since the mid-1950s, Vanuatu has been the site of large-scale commercial fleet operations by Asian, Caribbean, Taiwanese as well as Korea tunas. In 1957, a Japan-based enterprise, Mitsui, founded the South Pacific Financial Corporation (SPFC) at a location in Palekula on Espiritu Santo.
Until 1983, 20 Taiwan longliner fishermen were stationed in Palekula, who fished in the Tasman Sea between April and August and in Vanuatu from September to March. However, in 1977, due to the development of fisheries in these areas, these ships moved to Fiji and American Samoa.
From 1974 to 1979, there were also Polish and line ships from Japan in Vanuatu, landing at the SPFC-basis. Fisheries were focused on the area in both the northern and western parts of Espiritu Santo, with daily catch averages of 5 to 8 tonnes per ship, ranging from 300 to 1,600 tonnes per year.
During 1989, Taiwan' s shipowners agreed with the Vanuatu authorities to resume fisheries in Vanuatu' s waterbodies for a set $5,000 per year per year. The Fisheries Ministry reported that 65 boats were allowed to enter Vanuatu in 1999 under the terms of a series of agreements. The Vanuatu administration was paid $70,000 in charges for this.
The US-MTTA, which provides for US purse seiners to have entry to the EEZ of the islands participating in theTA, allows US purse seiners to operate in the Vanuatu EEZ. However, in fact, the Vanuatu EEZ is generally bad and the level of activity for this fleets has been low, with no catch reports in recent years.
In spite of the shortfall in catches, Vanuatu still received fees amounting to some $148,000 in 1999. In 1999, it is thought that the total quantity of long-linefish and purse seined in Vanuatu water was around 118t. Vanuatu's Maritime Act established Vanuatu as an open registration country for vessels.
In September 2001, the Vanuatu International Shipping Registry had 524 ships, of which 99 (18.9%) were fishery boats. Only very few of these ships have ever caught in Vanuatu. Some of the transatlantic and US calf catchers are in Vanuatu, although some of them are in the Pacific Islands, but are located elsewhere.
In 1999, the tunas harvested by these Vanuatu-flagged calf catchers in the Pacific Islands were 26 000 tons, almost 60% of which were taken in Kiribati water. Employing the Vanuatu crews on board non-Vanuatu boats was quite important a decade ago, but it has recently been declining. More than 400 Vanuatu men worked on Taiwan and Korea ships in 1990, but by the end of the 1990' only about 120 were in work.
Vanuatu inshore fishing is finite and is for livelihood. The few watercourses of Vanuatu sometimes catch small amounts of fresh water shrimp and eel. Vanuatu has little business or personal use. A small breeding ground for trochoidal mussels (Trochus niloticus) is operated by the fishing department, which produces young animals which are used in experimental studies to investigate the effects and potentials of backseeding reefs as a means of improving trochoidal fishing.
In the past, Vanuatu has attempted to raise oysters Crassostrea giga and C. echinata, rabbit fish, macro-brachium shrimps and tilapia, among others. The Fisheries Board conducted some breeding experiments with three species of large mussels in mid-1999. That same year the Department of kelp (Kappaphycus alvarezi) from Fiji came along for an experiential cultivation.
The Fisheries Ministry recorded that 275 "cultured corals" worth 1,165 US$ were from Vanuatu in 2000. Most of Vanuatu's catches are caught by sub-sistence fishing and are landfished throughout the entire island and eaten on a local basis. Part of the livelihood fishing can be marketed in areas currently serviced by local cargo carriers, by one of the two privately owned fishing boats currently operated from Port Vila, or by land transport from Port Vila or Luganville.
The majority of commercial sales finally find their way into the fishmongering and retailing business in Port Vila. The consumer of the products are homes and the large number of hotel and restaurant establishments that serve Vanuatu's bustling tourism. Vanuatu' s off-shore boats are exporting seafood to Australia and Japan and selling products to indigenous people.
In Vanuatu, catch from ships from abroad are seldom caught. Fished almost exclusively with longlining equipment, it is mainly supplied to canning factories in Levuka, Fiji and Pago Pago, American Samoa. In recent years there have been several efforts to estimate fishing in Vanuatu. That is lower than in many other Pacific island states, mainly because of Vanuatu's relatively large surface area and the associated higher level of farm produce available, but still higher than the global mean of about 13 kg/year.
For many Vanuatu inhabitants in city areas where the money rather than lifestyles prevail, they favour seafood and would be eating more if it were available at a cost that would compete with other proteinaceous food such as importing chickens or local beefs. However, the high cost of selling seafood, combined with a powerful catering and wealthy retail sector, has meant that prices for local seafood are out of range for many people.
In part, this was offset by increasing exports of inexpensive tinned and deep-freeze fish as well as by the intake of alternate types of proteins. The Asian Development Bank estimates the catch of the Vanuatu sub-sistence and inshore fishery at USD 3,974,587 and USD 681,801 respectively.
Substantial and merchant fisheries have also been estimated to account for about 2.2 percent of Vanuatu's GNP. Of the 22,000 Vanuatu fishery homes, 35% were active in fisheries during the seven days before the survey; 40% of the above fishery homes reported that they sold fishery products for some kind of revenue; 19% of villagers collected shells.
Vanuatu Goverment will receive payment for overseas fisheries in the Vanuatu area. Mr Vanuatu also profits from the provision of crews for overseas boats. A 1997 Forum Fisheries Agency survey found that work on non-national boats currently accounts for about 0.7% of all official jobs in Vanuatu. Significant efforts and recourses to promote small-scale deep-sea fisheries were successful at first, at least in areas with easy entry to municipal market, but fisheries have virtually broken down in more isolated areas due to high cost of output and marketing and the government's reluctance to subsidise continued small or non-profitable fisheries.
It is an important supplier of freshwater seafood to the Port Vila area. That several neighbouring states have engaged in sustainable longliners suggests that Vanuatu could do the same. However, the German authorities want to boost international investments abroad in this area. Over the last two decade-long period, various measures have been taken to re-activate the Palekula Island Espiritu Santo fishmonger.
Vanuatu's recently drafted management plan for tunas provides for greater financial and environmental benefit from Vanuatu's tunnelstock. This is a program of developments financed by charges and fines; a FAD program; extension and explanation of customs allowances for the growth of fishing for tunas; information and assistance for the growth of fishing for bluefin tunas; laws to ease the export of cannabis; licensing standards for the Vanuatu crews; and programs to assist and train the crews.
An important element in realising the full exploitation of tunnel resource capacity is the level of state aid for these efforts. Substantial fisheries are the second most important resource for village people in Vanuatu's countryside after farming. The use of conventional farming methods has been used in the past to preserve fish populations, but with the progress in catching methods and gear and the growing pressures on the rewards of fisheries, the usual methods of catching have decreased in some areas.
As a result, the resulting pressures on coastal stocks and a number of instances of local exhaustion have raised people' s consciousness of the need for better coastal fisheries exploitation. The new interest in the potentials of common maritime ownership to protect coastal ressources is now expressed by both the governments and those who use them.
Every step forward in the Vanuatu fish farming industry is probably due to investments by the public authorities and not to the government's attempt to start business by means of active participation. Vanuatu's most important law on fish stocks is the 1982 Law on Catching Fish. Financial and economic recovery plan; system of fishing-entrance; international permits; stowing of gears by non-national ships; authority of the Minister to conclude licence and implementation harmonization treaties or conventions; territorial registry of non-national fishermen; non-national investments in fish; permits for non-national fishermen; authority of the Minister to authorize research activity; requests for permits for fishing;
Powers for the Minister to deny the granting or renewal of a licence; terms and conditions of a licence; royalty, licence fee and other levies; expiry of a licence; renewal and revocation of a licence; complaints against the denial or renewal, suspense and revocation of a licence; fisheries for sea-mammal banned in Vanuatu water; ban on the use of explosive and toxic substances for fisheries; sea reservations; authorisation of fisheries processors.
The amendments comprise certain stipulations (e.g. a defining territorial fleet ), the Minister's authority to conclude fisheries treaties abroad and monitors. Further important tools are the Decentralisation and Municipal Administration Act (1994), Licensing Acts ( "CAP 173"), the Maritime Zones Act (1981) and various state Acts.
We do not have a single piece of legislation that combines all the different laws on fishing in one place. The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry and Fishery is responsible for the evolution and governance of Vanuatu's fishing industry. It is managed by the Director of Fishing and has three major departments:
Administrative and financial; and (3) Rural Fishery Development Programme. By the mid-1990s, a team of 29 people were working in the fishing department. It is in close touch with local and multinational organizations involved in fishing. Politics and other affairs are primarily administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Mr. Vanuatu ist Mitglied der South Pacific Commission (SPC), der South Pacific Forum Agency (FFA) et du South Pacific Environmental Programme (SPREP). Mr Vanuatu is also a contracting partner to a number of contracts and conventions on the exploitation of the region's fishing industry, including: the Treaty on Fishing between the Government of certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America; the Agreement on the prohibition of fishing with long driftnets in the South Pacific; and the Niue Treaty on cooperation in monitoring and prosecution of fishing activities in the South Pacific.
Mr Vanuatu has signed the United Nations Law of the Sea Agreement (UNCLOS), the Agreement implementing the provisions of the United Nations Agreement on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 on the conservation and management of cross-territory stocks and highly migratory stocks and the Agreement on the conservation and management of highly migratory stocks in the West and Central Pacific.
Mr Vanuatu is also a contracting part of the Washington Convention on Concerning Threatened Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Fisheries research in Vanuatu is the Department of Fisheries. Numerous research projects have been implemented, often with the support of local or multinational research organisations, in particular the ORSTOM11, a research organization which until 1997 had a military research center in Vanuatu.
The research conducted included: marine biology investigations on deep-sea fisheries; investigations on the dissemination and production potentials of tunnel lures; evaluation of resources of trochus, greensnail and beche-de-mer; biologic and biodynamic investigations on crabs of coconuts; breeding of brood of trochus and greensnail; trials on the liberation of young animals with Trochus and ensuing populations of these.
The three most important research dossiers currently carried out by the Ministry of Fisheries: Fishery-related education is provided through the National Farmeries School in Luganville, where professional fishery education is provided in a dedicated center. Marineraining School in Port Vila also offers elementary education in seafaring for the fishery and marine industry.
It is run by the Department of Agriculture and Food, while the Naval School is located at the Department's head office. Mr Vanuatu has received the backing of a number of multilateral and bilateral fishery contributors. The aid covered the financing of posts for foreign personnel in the Ministry of Agriculture, the setting up and running of agricultural fishery centers, the supply of ships, FAD material and gear, the building of aquacultural plants, research cooperation and travelling expenses for trainings and participation in sessions.
Vanuatu's fishing industry has been actively supported by local organizations working for the Pacific Island States, such as the Forum Foreign Affairs Agency, the Pacific Community Secretariat, the South Pacific regional environment programme, the Forum Secretariat and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. http://www.adb. org/Documents/Reports/Vanuatu- Contains the report of the Asian Development Bank on the Vanuatu Agricultural and Fishing Industry. http://www.nla.gov.au/lap/libs/vanuatudfl. html - Information about the Vanuatu fishery department in Vanuatu.
Statistical summary of the South Pacific Commission 2000. South-Pacific Commission 2000: mid-year estimates. Fisheries' contribution to the Pacific Island economies. Société des Development Asians, Manila. 6Subdivision (tons): minimum livelihood 2,700; coast industry 230; local off-shore 0; 2,930 in all. This figure does not take into account the 118 tons of fish taken by overseas off-shore ships.
Includes not about 120 members of the flight crews on non-Vanuatu operated boats. 9Share of value: livelihood US$3,974,587; coast industry US$681,801; local off-shore US$0; US$4,656,388 in all. The value of the off-shore catches of $253,087 by overseas registered ships is not considered. The Vanuatu Goverment and Gillett and Lightfoot (2001).