Peru

Perú

For information on timetables, stations and trains to Cusco, Puno and Arequipa. consnot@embassyofperu.us. Health and vaccination advice for Peru.

Luxurious hotels and icon hoists

Discover Machu Picchu at dawn; follow the shore of Lake Titicaca from a luxurious sleeping car; get out of your suites in an old mansion and immerse yourself in the bustle of Cusco. Viscose, delicate, groundy and gently scented, is Peru's famous Peruvian liqueur. Dan to Machu Picchu, get a blessing from a holy valley shadow, stir up a nasty picco in Cusco:

With a wide selection of great products and folk cuisine combined with international cuisine, Peru is one of the best travel destination in the underworld. Overlooking Peru's Sacred Valley, next to the amazing Inca city of Machu Picchu, a timeless rite invites you to give homage to Pachamama, the earth mother.

Be it on the beach, in the pub, in museums or in the market, take a few hints - and experience life like a native in this enchanting town.

Facts, History & News

Peru, in the west of Latin America, stretches almost 1,500 miles (2,414 km) along the Pacific Ocean. Columbia and Ecuador are in the northern part, Brazil and Bolivia in the eastern part and Chile in the southern part. Five sixth of the area of Alaska, Peru is separated by the Andes into three highly diverse acres.

It is bordered by five neighbouring states. Brazil (1,560 km), Chile (160 km), Colombia (1,496 km) and Ecuador (1,420 km). In November 2005, Chile and Ecuador opposed Peru's one-sided law to move the axes of their common contractual sea frontiers along the parallel latitudes to the equidistant frontiers that favour Peru; organised drug trafficking in Colombia has broken through Peru's common frontier; Peru is rejecting Bolivia's call to re-establish sea transport through a commanding passage through Chile along the country's perineum.

By 1996, Peru was the world's biggest manufacturer of coke leaves, although it lagged far behind Colombia; in 2016, Peru's production of coke was expected to fall to 44,000 ha, down 16 percent from 2015; the second biggest coke manufacturer, potentially to produce 410 tonnes of virgin coke in 2016;

Ready coke is transported from Pacific harbours to the global drugs markets; however, growing quantities of basic and ready coke are transported to Brazil, Chile, Argentina and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transhipment to Europe and Africa; growing inland use. There are 10 large TV channels, only one of which is state-owned, Television Nacional de Peru; multi-channel wired TV service is available; more than 2,000 broadcasters, among them a significant number of native voice channels (2010).

In 3200 BC, Norte Chico already established municipal settlement in Peru; unlike other early civilisations, Norte Chico constructed a rather compact cityscape with many towns focused on a few rivers. Many remarkable civilisations existed that died down and flew before the Peruvian invasion of Spain, but the most important of them are the Incas.

Tawantin Suyu covered the whole western coastline of South America from the south of Colombia to the centre of Chile, all from the capitol Kuzco in Peru. Similar to Mexico, the Spanish tried to increase the crown's treasury by seizing the area' s finances, taking possession of the labour forces and taking advantage of the region' s wealth.

During the first years of Peru's Colonies the years immediately before reflected. The most inspiring (and cruelest) movement of the Colonian Empire was the continued exploitation of Inca bullion and inca. The Spaniards were not definitively beaten until 1824. From 1864-1866 a new conflict was waged with Spain, and from 1879 to 1883 an ineffective one was waged with Chile (Pacific War).

In 1945, after the first free elections in many years, Peru came out of 20 years of rule with the investiture of President José Luis Bustamente y Rivero. Velasco was superseded in a bloody putsch in 1975 by its premier Francisco Morales Bermudez, who pledged to re-establish civil rule.

Belaúnde Terry, the last civil chairman, was re-elected to the presidency at the May 18, 1980 poll. Maoist guerilla group Shainingath, or Sendero Luminoso, began their violent coalition drive to bring down the regime in 1980. Tupac Amaru, a smaller group of rebels, also struggled against the state. Approximately 69,000 persons were murdered during the 1980-2000 war between the rebels and the state.

Peru's brittle democracies have outlived. Belaúnde Terry was the first newly-elected president in 1985 to hand over constitutional authority to a constitutional succession since 1945. He won the 1990 election. Fujimori broke up Congress, postponed the draft and censored in April 1992, invoking persistent terrorist acts, drugs dealing and cribery. Mr Fujimori was re-elected for a third five-year mandate in 1995 and May 2000 after his adversary, Alejandro Toledo, retired from the competition and accused of con.

Mr Fujimori said he would disband the mighty National Intelligence Service charged with violating people. Reveals that Fujimori clandestinely possessed Japan's nationality and could not be handed over to counter accusations of corrupt practices have angered the people. Alejandro Toledo was voted 53% of the votes for the presidency in 2001, beating former presidency Alan García by a narrow margin.

However, as heir to a land plagued by financial difficulties and bribery, Toledo did little to rebuild trust in the state. A national uprising took place in June 2002 in the towns of Arequipa and Tacna, as well as in other areas in the south of Peru, after two state-owned power companies were sold to the Belgium-based Tractebel Group.

In the course of his marketing campaigns, Toledo had expressly pledged not to resell these companies. However, in the second round in June, former Alan García, whose government drove Peru into bankruptcy in 1985-1990, made a surprising return with 52 victories. Electoral analyst have proposed that Humala, a former army commander who once conducted a military coup, was erratic and able to undermine Peru's democratic system, and that García, despite his proved lack of financial competence and his record of corrupt practices, was the slightly better choice.

The Chilean Supreme Court in September 2007 authorised the surrender of former Chilean Prime Minister Alberto Fujimori to Peru to bring him to justice for his actions against the country for bribery and violations of people. Since 2005, he had been in Chile when he was arrested, after he was on his way back to Peru from volunteer Iraq to try a policy-return.

President García on 11 October 2008 named a left-wing provincial government official, Yehude Simon, his premier - a step that came as a shock to many. Alberto Fujimori was found culpable in April 2009 after a 16-month television lawsuit for violations of international humanitarian law and bribery.

Ollanta Humala, a former military Lieut. Col. Lt., was appointed in June 2011. Keiko Fujimori, the daugther of former US Prime Minister Alberto Fujimori, who is in jail for violations of international law and bribery. Humala joined Venezuelan Prime Minister Hugo Chavez in this vote. Humala played down his stereotypical past and re-invented his reputation as a more left-wing moderates, like former Brazil premier Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

Although Peru has seen an upturn in the country's economies, the problem of extreme economic hardship is still a major one. Humala's choice over the well-known right-wing Fujimori revealed dissatisfaction at how much poorer offspring have not been helped by sluggish GDP expansion. Humanala is planning to increase the tax on coal mines and to let the state have a greater part in the business world.

Florindo Eleuterio Flores Hala, known as Comrade Artemio, was seriously injured on 12 February 2012 after a fight with the Peruvian people. Humala issued a declaration in which he said that taking Artemio means that the Shining Trail has now been conquered in the Alto Huallaga Vall. It was a great triumph for the government of Peru, as the Alto Huallaga River is an important area of coke-making.

Accompanied by Mr Çaviedes in detention, President Humala said that the Shining Trail in the Alto Huallaga Valley was no longer intact. This area is the last rebel stronghold that was once a big issue for the state. Peru's leaders refuse to bargain. Justice Minister Juan Jiménez said on TV that they "do not deal with terrorism, the federal administration is acting within the framework of the Act.

" Goverment sent 1,500 soldiers into the area. Defence Minister Alberto Otarola also travelled to the area to guide the efforts to free the prisoners. Prime Minister Oscar Valdés and his administration stepped down on 23 July 2012. It has been succeeded by César Villanueva, Chairman of San Martin, a north Peruvian area.

President Ollanta Humala declared on 7 June 2013 that he would not reprieve former President Alberto Fujimori. Fujimori has lingual cancers and other medical issues in jail for corrupt practices and violation of people' s freedoms. Before Humala's ruling, a committee of presidents had discouraged the pardoning of Fujimori.

From 1990 to 2000, Fujimori led the struggle against the Shining Trail, a group of guerrillas. On March 31, 2015, however, Peru's Congress approved the removal of Jara as PM for supposedly spying on legislators, reporters and other people. As the Spaniards arrived in 1531, Peru's territories were at the heart of the advanced Inca civilisation.

Centrally located in Cuzco, the Inca Empire stretched over a huge area from the north of Ecuador to the centre of Chile. The conquistadors were rich in the Andes, and Peru became the main resource of Spain's riches and might in South America. Peru's independent movements were headed by Jose de San Martin from Argentina and Simon Bolivar from Venezuela.

On 28 July 1821, San Martin declared Peru's sovereignty over Spain. Thereupon Spain made unsuccessful efforts to recover its former settlements, but in 1879 it eventually recognised Peru's autonomy. Following national independence, Peru and its neighbours in intervening regional conflicts. Chile's defeat of Peru and Bolivia in the Pacific War (1879-83) led to an area where Peru relinquished the Tarapaca département and the Tacna and Arica counties to Chile.

Chile Tacna came back to Peru in 1929. After a dispute between Peru and Ecuador in 1941, the Rio Protocol, in which the United States is one of four guarantees alongside Argentina, Brazil and Chile, was to define the borders between the two states. Ongoing disputes over borders resulted in brief military conflict in early 1981 and early 1995, but in 1998 the Peru and Ecuadorian authorities concluded an historical agreement limiting the area.

At the end of 1999, the Peru and Chile authorities also transposed the last remaining articles of their 1929 Borders Convention. Perú and Chile are still arguing over the maritime frontier. Militaries have played an important role in Peru' s past. Civilians have been subjected to repeated coup d'états that have broken off the civil state. It was 1968-80, the most recent phase of reigning the army, when General Juan Velasco Alvarado toppled President Fernando Belaunde Terry from the Popular Action Party (AP).

Mr Bermudez led the resumption of civil rule under a new constitutional system, and President Belaunde Terry was brought back into power by an impressively broad majority at the May 1980 election. In 1982-83, the economical difficulties of the army regime remained, aggravated by the El Niño meteorological phenomena, which led to frequent floods in some parts of the countryside, serious drought in others and decimation of the fisheries sector.

As a result of the slump in the economy, the situation of Peru's people deteriorated, creating a fertile soil for civil and religious dissatisfaction. Some of the funding for the terrorism came from coalitions with narcotics who had built a fortress in the Peruvian Andes during this time. Perú and Bolivia became the biggest coke manufacturers in the whole wide globe and accounted for about four fifth of South America's population.

Peru's move from Belaunde to García on 28 July 1985 was the first change of government from one elected democracy to another in 40 years. Worried about the economic situation, the growing threats of terrorism from Sendero Luminoso and accusations of formal bribery, in 1990 the electorate voted a relatively anonymous mathematical expert, Alberto Fujimori, as prime minister.

He believed he had a remit for drastic changes. Fujimori closed the congress in the "Auto-Coup" on 4 April 1992, reworked the country's statutes and launched new congress votes. Fujimori reigned unhindered with a smoother congress. They launched a counter-attack against the uprising, which led to innumerable violations of people' s rights and finally destroyed the Brilliant Trail and the MRTA.

Fujimori was compelled by a bribe affair that began only a few months after his third mandate in July to call new ballots in which he would not run. Mr Fujimori left the Dominican Republic and retired in November 2000. An interim administration under Valentin Paniagua led new election for president and congress in April 2001.

Under the leadership of President Alejandro Toledo, the newly appointed administration took up its duties on 28 July 2001. Toledo' s regime successfully consolidates Peru' s restoration of its democratic system, a democratic transformation that began under President Paniagua. During the 1980-2000 period, the authorities took steps to comply with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) recommendation to investigate the causes of these crimes.

Former President Fujimori, who is in Chile to fight his extradition to Peru, has been charged with bribery and atrocities. Although Toledo was a common goal of critique in the masses, he remained strongly committed to free journalism. Mr Toledo and Peru concluded a Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) with the USA to supersede the Andean Trade Law, which expires in December 2006.

He also revealed the building of a highway that will link Brazil and Peru's remote hinterland with the Pacific coastline. Toledo' s business leadership resulted in an impressing and sustained booming Peruvian economy. The Juntos administration introduced "Juntos" in 2005, a programme to increase the incomes of those who live in severe destitution (less than 1 dollar per day).

The APRA nominee Alan García Pérez was chosen President by 52 people on 4 June 2006. In his run-off election, 5% of the electorate voted for Ollanta Humala, who ran for Peru under the Union with the backing of his Peruvian Nationalist Party. APRA has the second biggest block with 36 members - after the 45 members of the Union for Peru - in the single-chamber congress, which was swear in July 2006.

García came back from a failed 1985-1990 period, promising to ameliorate Peru's welfare situation and reconcile the country's economy with higher welfare outlays. Its main declared objective is to reduce livelihoods through employment generation, especially in the Peruvian uplands, where it is most poor. It has tried to enhance ties with Peru's neighbours in Latin America and the United States and to present Peru's free and free trading route as a role example for the area.

Election of the Chairman for five years. First and second vice-presidents are also chosen by the people, but have no constituent function, unless the latter is not able to exercise his office. Its members are appointed by the Congress and must be approved. Besides enacting legislation, Congress is ratifying contracts, approving intergovernmental bonds and approving the state finances.

Justice is administered by a 16-strong Supreme Court. Twenty-five different areas make up Peru. High-ranking public administrations at provincial and municipal level are chosen. The Peruvian consulate is located at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Tel. (202) 833-9860/67, Consulate Section):

It has consular offices in Atlanta, New York, Paterson (NJ), Miami, Chicago, Houston, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston and Hartford. Peru's economies have grown strongly over the past five years, supported by market-oriented business reform and privatisation in the 90s and by actions taken since 2001 to stimulate commerce and investments.

This policy has been pursued by President Alan Garcia and his business people. Peru's business is well administered, and better taxation charging and revenue growing increases, while spending keeps up. Recent issues of bonds have been a successful year for the US Treasury, which has led to rating up-grades. On April 12, 2006, Peru and the USA in Washington, DC, ratified the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA).

PTPA was approved by the Congress of Peru on June 28, 2006, but not yet by the US Congress. The President on 30 June 2007 adopted a law renewing ATPA/ATPDEA for a further 8 month period. In 2006 Peru recorded a net income from foreign exchange transactions of 8.8 billion dollars. Peru's most important commercial counterparts are the USA, China, the EU, Chile and Japan.

It is a member of the Andean Community, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Development Cooperation Council (APEC) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Peru's government is active in attracting both inward and outward investments in all areas of the country's economic activity. It is a resource for oil and coal. Peru commenced operation of the Camisea CNG PROJ in August 2004.

about seven time as large as Peru's proved petroleum resources. This Camisea programme aims to change Peru's economic situation, promote domestic growth and make Peru a net emitter of electricity. It is the world's second biggest manufacturer of sterling argon, the 6th biggest manufacturer of brass and brass and a major supplier of tin and plumb.

With an average share of around 50% of Peru's overall revenues from 1998 to 2005 and 62% in 2006, minerals always account for the largest share of Peru's overall revenues from the country's export business. In general, Peru maintains amicable relationships with its neighbours. Peru and Chile concluded three treaties in November 1999 to remove the outstanding barriers to the application of the 1929 Border Treaty.

At the end of 2005, a statement by the Peruvian Congress on sea frontiers triggered a new round of accusations against Chile, stating that the sea frontiers were settled in early 1950s fisheries agreements. The Garcia government, on the other hand, recently made overture to Chile to improve this relation.

Peru and Ecuador concluded a final settlement agreement in October 1998 to settle the frontier disputes that had led to violence. Now Peru and Ecuador are co-ordinating an international frontier cooperation programme. As one of four guarantors, the US government was active in the facilitation of the 1998 Peru-Ecuador Agreement and continues to work for its furtherance.

United States has committed $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador Boundary Integrative Programme and another $4 million to help Peru vian and Ecuador to clear mines along their shared borders. During 1998 Peru became a member of the Asia-Pacific Cooperation Asia Board (APEC), which facilitates stronger links and business relationships between Peru and the countries of Asia.

In 2008, Peru will be hosting the APEC Summit. Since 1949 Peru has been a member of the United Nations and a member of the Security Council. The Peruvian Javier Perez de Cuellar was UN Secretary-General from 1981 to 1991. In peace-keeping missions in Haiti, Peru has 210 forces under UN-MINUSTAH.

United States has developed powerful and co-operative relationships with Peru. The relationship was tense after the spoiled re-election of former President Fujimori in June 2000, but got better with the establishment of a transitional regime in November 2000 and the investiture of Alejandro Toledo's regime in July 2001. The relationship with President Garcia's regime is good.

United States remains committed to strengthen Peru's democracy and protection of fundamental freedoms and Peru's economic-inclusion. United States and Peru are cooperating in an effort to prevent the influx of narcotic substances, in particular coke, into the United States. A bi-national programme is now in place to curb the drug flows through Peru's ports and to implement a land ban in conjunction with effective prosecution.

US investments and travel in Peru have increased strongly in recent years. Peru's number one trading country, the United States will strengthen commerce and commerce as the U.S. Congress adopts the Peru Protocol on the Promotion of Commerce (PTPA). Approximately 200,000 U.S. nationals come to Peru every year to do businesses, run a tourist industry and university.

Some 16,000 Americans live in Peru, and more than 400 US businesses are located there. It is open from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm, Monday-Friday, except in the USA and on some of Peru' s hidays. For a brochure titled "Health Information for International Travel" (HHS Publications Number CDC-95-8280), please contact the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

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