Pacific Islands facts

The Pacific Islands facts

As the coral grows on the sea side and dies in the middle, the island grows outwards in a ring. Ahead of the Australian coast, the Great Barrier Reef is the longest reef in the world. There are many thousands of islands in the Pacific Ocean. The atolls are coral islands in the sea surrounded by a lagoon. The most atolls in the world are in the Pacific.

About the Pacific

It is the Pacific is the biggest oceans in the whole wide globe. It is larger than the entire arid country of the entire globe combined and occupies one third of the earth's area. It has an mean Pacific sea level of just over 4,000 metres and contains the depths of the world's deepest canals. It is almost a triangle in the Pacific, small in the Arctic and wide in the Arctic.

Surrounding the Pacific Basin are volcanos, from Alaska to the USA, Mexico, South America, New Zealand, Japan and Russia. It is often referred to as the "Ring of Fire" and covers about seventy-five percent of all volcanos in the whole orbit. There are many thousand islands in the Pacific Ocean.

There are large islands in the western part such as Japan, Taiwan, Borneo and New Guinea, then the smaller islands Polynesia (whose name means many islands) and Tahiti. Farther eastwards are islands like Pitcairn, Easter Island and Galapagos. There are two kinds of small islands in the Pacific: many are high and vulcanic and others are low and form on top of immersed volcanos.

This atoll, as they are known, are islands of corals and are produced by adenoids. As corals grow on the sea side and die in the middle, the whole isle is growing outward. In the Pacific, wind and current flow patterns are similar to those in the Atlantic, with counterclockwise motion in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the south.

The equatorial currents run between the two. It is the longest western river in the word, stretching 9,000 mile from Panama to the Philippines. As the Northern Equatorial Stream arrives in Japan, it turns northwards and is called the Japan Stream. Japan's Gulf Stream is the opposite of the Gulf Stream in the Western Pacific: when it hits the Arctic's cool water, fog and storm events occur, just like when the Labrador and Gulf Streams meet.

The Humboldt Current runs northwards along the South American coastline in the south half of the Atlantic. A large part of the Pacific gets hotter at frequent intervalls. Hot waters flow 100 km a days across the Pacific. It is this phenomena, known as El Nino, that distracts the Humboldt Current.

Warm waters along Peru's coastline cause rainfall and flooding in South and Central America. Southeast Asian rainfall is disrupted, leading to the breakdown of cultures such as Australian grain and New Guinea caffeine. STORY The Pacific is the oldest oceans in the underworld.

Mankind' s history of the Pacific is one of immigration and research. Archipelagoes of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia traveled several thousand kilometres in their canoe, populating Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and all the other islands. It is believed that they went as far as South America because the yam, a local Peruvian crop, was growing in Polynesia before the advent of foreigners.

Thought that the migrations might have been in the opposite sense (from South America to Polynesia), Thor Heyerdahl from Norway constructed the infamous Kon-Tiki float and crossed the Pacific to show that such a journey was possible. On September 25, 1513, the first Europeans to see the Pacific were the Spaniard Balboa and Ferdinand Magellan in 1520.

The Pacific Ocean is home to many species such as colorful marine species in corals, squid, shark and crustacean, mollusc, and mammal.

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