Office of National Marine SanctuariesNational Marine Protected Areas Office
by Maggy Hunter Benson. If most people think of iconic American landscapes, we think of places on land. Articles on National Marine Sanctuaries written by NOAA Office of Coast Survey.
chip class="mw-headline" id="History">History
U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) System is the U.S. government programme that identifies marine reserves to conserve and improve biological diversity, environmental health and heritage of national importance. It has 13 national marine reserves and a national memorial with a surface area of 150,000 sqm. Ressources conserved by conservation areas include everything from reefs and eelp eco-systems to wrecks.
The system, founded in 1972, has worked to extend its scope to the whole territory and to obtain adequate funds for the programme. The Congress founded the Stratton Committee in 1966 to propose a new way of managing marine and marine resourcec. In 1969, the European Parliament published its recommendation, among other things the call for a new German Maritime Affairs Authority.
In the same year, a large scale spills off the Californian coastline near Santa Barbara drew the country's eye and underlined the need for better marine governance. Led by the Stratton Commission and driven by the Santa Barbara spills, Congress adopted several pieces of legislation in the early 70s, among them the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act in 1972.
The National Marine Sanctuaries Program for the protection of marine reserves - one hundred years after the creation of the national park system - introduced Title III of this law. Founded in 1975, the first national marine reserve was the USS Monitor, a wreck off the North Carolina coastline. In the same year the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary was expelled off the Florida coastline.
Its most recent expansion took place in 2006 with the creation of the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (originally the Northwestern National Monument of the Northern Western-Jawaiian Islands Marine National), the biggest individual protected area in the state. Fig. 1: Map of 13 National Marine Sanctuaries and one Marine National Monument in the United States.
Later the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act became the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (NMSA). Significant changes were made in 1980, when the Coast Guard was to take the necessary measures to assist the SPAs. Other changes were made in 1984 to address certain questions, among them open consultation, documentation of current and prospective uses of sites and the implementation of research and education programmes in SPAs.
In the next round of changes, adopted in 1988, the NMS were empowered to allow business to restore profitability in the use of natural and man-made resource. Ship-base contact or contamination that would destroy the protected area's natural resource would also be responsible for the reaction and cleaning outlay. The accumulated fine is paid into a special reserve bank which is used for preservation.
In 1992, several changes were made, such as the creation of Citizens' Consultative Committees to support the design and administration of protected areas. Recent significant changes were made in 2000 with the task of creating a consistent system of protected areas. At the same the Congress banned further names until NOAA could prove that they could allocate sufficient funds for the administration of the current protected areas.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (within the Department of Commerce) Office of National Marine Sanctuaries administers the National Marine Sanctuaries and is committed to reconcile preservation with interoperable business and leisure pursuits. You have three options for designating a marine area for marine protected areas. The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 authorizes the Secretary of the Department of Commerce and Congress to nominate discreet areas.
It also has the power to erect naval national monuments in accordance with the Antiques Act. NMSP is based on a national strategy map setting seven objectives and 19 key indicators. They lead the process of developing personalised protected area managment schemes. The sanctuaries are all backed by sanitary advisory council (SAC) that reviews and updates sanitary managment schemes and develops thematic activity schemes.
It is the duty of all protected areas to draw up their own managment plan with the help of our societal associations. They summarise current programmes and rules, formulate objectives and prioritise and direct decisions and policy. The majority of NMS-Managementplans are over 10 years old. The NMSP decentralised the organization in 2005 to promote co-ordination between the Shrines. The four provincial branches were set up to network employees with other provincial programmes and alliances.
The National Park Service (NPS) is complementary to the NMSP. More than 40 national parks cover 3 million hectares of sea and coast and more than 4,000 nautical mile shoreline within their borders. Each instrument focuses on the sanctuary's collaboration based on involving the stakeholder in its design and execution.
The protected area ordinances define the permitted activity and the zone limits. The NMSP has some regulative power, but an important topic is the link between a protected area and fishery stewardship. Much has been discussed in this area with the National Marine Fishery Service, the RFACs and the sector.
It was at the heart of the review of the Channel Islands Sanctuary, which set up a net of no-take marine reservations within the SANCTURARY (see CINMS case study). The protected areas also use a licensing system to enable selected business activity to complement the SPAs. Recognising its small budget and human ressources, the NMSP has created a comprehensive programme of training for the general community to raise our knowledge, consciousness and responsibility for marine ressources.
It also focuses on training stakeholders. Over the years, several assessments of the efficacy of the NMSP were made. In 2000, the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) recognized many achievements and encourages the National Academy of Public Administration (NMSP) to concentrate on results rather than processes and to adopt the value and power of the SAC.
In 2006, NAPA published a second reporting identifying significant system improvements and stakeholder involvement in the governance processes. The NMSP is considered a paradigm for ecosystem-based resource planning, as endorsed by two national oceans commission. The Office of Inspector General in 2008 came to the conclusion that the NMSP is making headway in the long-term conservation of marine eco-systems and natural and cultural heritage.
It has become a national system of conservation areas through rigorous action, yearly operational planning, system-wide reporting and governance as required by Congress. One of the areas in need of improvements is the implementation of the rules on protection areas. "Advisory Board: Public participation in the National Marine Conservation Programme.
" Coastline management 29 (2001): 327-339. "Finding a consensus on the design of marine protected areas. "Coastal Management 32 (2004): 173-190. Establishment of the National Marine Sanctuary Act: Institute of Marine Conservation Biology, 2005. "Advisory Board: Collaborative Resource Management survey. "University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, 2006.