Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National MonumentMidwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument
The monument is a huge, isolated and largely unpopulated marine area covering an area of about 139,797 square kilometres (362,075 square kilometres) of the Pacific Ocean. The 115-mile monument (100 nm/185.2 km) extends over a range of about 1,200 nm/1,931 km and is littered with small islands, isles, cliffs, shallows, underwater benches and oysters, which stretch from sub-tropical latitude to near the north boundary of caymaking.
The monument is administered by three co-trustees: the State of Hawaii, the US Department of the Interior through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the US Department of Commerce through the Financial Services and Wildlife Service (FWS). On August 29, 2006, NOAA and FWS issued the definitive provisions for the monument under 50 CFR Part 404.
Those ordinances consolidate the extent and purposes, limits, defines, bans and regular actions for the administration of the monument. Furthermore, on 8 December 2006, the co-trustees drew up and initialled a memorandum of agreement defining the tasks and responsibility of the coordination committees and monument stewards. This Memorandum of Agreement also calls on the co-trustees to draw up a monument managment plan to ensure the co-ordinated exploitation of the monument's marine eco-systems and associated marine environment, land reserves and historical and cultural heritage.
In order to devise the Monument Management Plans, the co-trustees have amended the plans drawn up by NOAA's National Marine sanctuaries program through the procedure of designating the SPA.
President Obama on Friday 26 August unveiled the extension of the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument off the Hawaiian coastline, making it the biggest marine reserve in the history of the state. Based on the United States' leading role in marine protection worldwide, today's designations will more than quadruplicate the scale of the current marine monument and provide lasting protection for the unspoilt marine life and important environmental assets in the seas of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands.
This monument was erected by President George W. Bush in 2006 and declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010. From then on, new research and studies have shown new types and deep-sea environments as well as important environmental links between the monument and the surrounding area.
Under its current name, the current Marine National Monument will be extended by 442,781 sq. m., increasing the overall area of the extended monument to 582,578 mq. m. Enlargement provides crucial protection for more than 7,000 marine life types, among them cetaceans, which are included under the Endangered Species Act, and the longest alive marine life in the planet - corals that have lived longer than 4,500 years.
With oceans becoming acidic, warm and other effects of global warming threatening marine eco-systems, the extension of the monument will enhance the resistance of the oceans, support the adaptation of the region's various geographical areas' different corporeal and biodiversity assets and provide a scientific lab that will enable researchers to observe and study the effects of global change on these vulnerable micro-environment.
This extended monument area also contains natural assets of great historic and culturally importance. This extended area, which includes the Hawaiian islands and surrounding water, is regarded as a holy place for the Hawaiian people. Used in Hawaii's indigenous peoples' history of origins and settlements, it is used to practise important occupations such as long haul travel and exploration.
In addition, in the area of the extension of the monument there are wrecks and crashed planes from the Midway fight in World War Two, a fight that meant a great change in the course of the conflict in favour of the Allies. Any and all industrial mining activity, involving industrial fisheries and any mining of minerals in the area of the extension is forbidden, as it is within the limits of the monument .
Non-commercial fisheries, such as leisure fisheries and the extraction of fishery and other natural resource for Hawaiian indigenous culture practice, are permitted in the enlargement area, as is academic research. By Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument Website (original name): Northernwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument was erected by Presidential Proclamation 8031 on June 15, 2006 under the supervision of the Antiquities Act (16 U.S.C. 431-433).
This has been specifically designed to conserve an extraordinary diversity of physical and environmental assets. One year later it received its Hawaiian name, Papah?naumoku?kea More than 7,000 marine life can be found on the vast oceanic ocean walls of Papah?naumoku?kea - truly the rainforest of the ocean, a district of which can only be found in the Hawaiian archipelago.
Much of the islands and shallows are important habitat for uncommon wildlife such as the vulnerable turtles, the vulnerable Hawaiian black seals and the 14 million sea birds that brood and migrate 22 different kinds. There are also four birds that are not found anywhere else in the rest of the planet, among them the most vulnerable deer in the planet, the Laysan canard.
Several conservation activities were undertaken in the area during the course of the last millennium, beginning in 1903, when President Theodore Roosevelt sent the US Marines to stop the slaughtering of sea birds for plumage and egg in the Midway Atoll. In the next 100 years, six US governors and one Hawaiian governor gave the area greater shelter.
It has a one-of-a-kind co-management with three co-trustees and seven co-management offices (more). The groups work together to realize the monument's visions and missions. National Monument (aka Papahanaumokuakea) is a World Heritage-listed US National Monument covering 140,000 sq: km (360,000 km 2 ) of seawater, among them ten islands and altolls of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which are recognised worldwide for their heritage and environmental value as follows: