It' the home of the world's biggest laguna, a wonderful mixture of French and Kanak cultures, with amazing landscapes and game.
It' the home of the world's biggest laguna, a wonderful mixture of traditional canak cultures, with amazing landscapes and game. Her mixture of independent and electronical tones, which form into varied and multi-layered production, are both subtly and addictively. Have you ever asked yourself what a Cowboy Hat, a Snorkel Kit and a glass of France Champaign have in common?
The shimmering New Caledonia Laguna is surrounded by every glimmer of blues, greens and turquoises. A World Heritage Site, the Laguna has contributed to bringing together and protecting local communities, from the rural plain to the state. The New Caledonia is not only a tropic play area. There is a delightful blend of Walloon and Melanesian: cordial accommodation alongside elegant Europe, culinary delights under palms, sands, resort and bungalow.
Kayak, fly, climb, cruise, explore a coral, canyon, cave and shipwreck filled environment, go caving, snorkeling, kayaking or relaxing on the hot sands of an abandoned island. Celebrate the many marine life that can be found in the area. You' re going to give in to the seduction of a tasty biscuit.
About New Caledonia | Biography
Caledonia, New France, Nouvelle-Calédonie, one of a kind community in the southwest Pacific, about 1,500 km eastwards of Australia. Included are the New Caledonia Isles (the mainland), where the main city Nouméa is situated, the Loyalty Isles, the Bélep Isles and the Île des Pins. New Caledonia also has a number of distant uninhabitated archipelagos between 18 and 23 S and 163 and 169 E. These archipelagos make up more than 99 per cent of the area: they are between 18° and 23°S and 163° and 169°E:
You will find them in the D'Entrecasteaux Reefs, the Chesterfield and Bellona Reefs, Walpole Iceland, Beautemps-Beaupré Atoll and Astrolabe Reefs. The French also assert Hunter and Matthew Isles, but the Vanuatu is contesting the assert. It is by far the biggest of the group and comprises about nine tenth of the people.
There is a surrounding wall of reefs that stretches from the island of Huon in the northern to the Île des Pins in the southern part. It is a real barriere corerife that surrounds a large Laguna except for the main part of the western coastline, which is only bounded by a muleteer.
The New Caledonian Lagoon, with its varied cliffs and associated eco-systems, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2008. It is about 50 km broad and 500 km long. Robust mountains, mainly composed of metamorphous rocks, split the isle into an eastern shore, which in many places drops steeply to the ocean, and a western shore, which drops more slowly and contains essentially shallow but hilly country.
Ultra-basic serpentin rocks constitute a coherent plateaus above most of the southerly third of the entire length of the isle, which rises to 1,617 meters (5,308 feet) on Mount Humboldt and extends along the western shore as a succession of discreet mountains. The foothills of this formations make up the Art and Pott Isles in the Bélep Arcipelago to the northeast and to the southeast, the main part of the Île des Pins, bounded by an emerging core of cetaceans.
To the north-east of the major isle, a spur of cornice constitutes a 40 mile (60 km) long chain of mountains that encompasses the highest point of New Caledonia, Mount Panié, at an altitude of 1,628m. In other parts of the north of the country, the majority of the islands consist of an erratic row of slate mountains.
The sedimentary rock is confined to a small area stretching along much of the western interior coastline between the serpentines and the north shales. Many brooks descends from the main range to the Laguna; the brooks often quickly flooded after rains and dried out in arid conditions, especially on the western part.
Diahot is the longest stream in the land and runs about 100 km towards the north tip of the isle along the west coast of the Panié Mountains. Loyalty islets are made up of the three major Ouvéa, Lifou and Maré and many small islets, the most important of which is the Tiga.
Loyalty isles make up more than a 10th of the entire New Caledonia territory and about a 10th of the people. Unlike the Isle of New Caledonia, these are elevated plateaux of corals that nowhere rise much higher than 130m. Storms are particularly widespread on the eastern coastline, where in higher altitudes more than 3,000 mm of precipitation can shed yearly.
Rainfall on the western coastline is usually less than 1,000 mm. There are a few sunny nights in the south of the principal peninsula when the weather exceeds 86°F (30°C). Nouméa has the minimum reachable temperate of about 55 F (13 C), but further northerly on the western shore there are known degrees of up to 41 F (5 C).
Various types of rainforests extend from those that grow on core decks such as the Loyalty Islands to mountain forest over 900 meters on the central isle. Savannah woods on the western coastline are characterised by high fire resistance native woodland (Melaleuca quinquenervia), which tends to be dominated by bush fires.
Niaouli is best grown on moist soil up to a height of 610 meters, but it also stretches on well dewatered hillsides and ridges and is the principal variety in the enclosed marsh woods of the Diahot-Tal. In the past, lowland areas of the western coastline were common in arid spherophyll forest predominated by guaiac ("acacia spirorbis").
Mangroves bogs multiply on the strongly divided western coastline. More than two fifth of the Melanesian people, Europeans about a third. Offspring of migrants from Indonesia and Vietnam also make up a small part of the local populace and live mainly in the city. While there is no formal English, French and Kanak have a particular juridical status.
About 30 Melanesic langauges are used, with most Melanesians speaking more than one. One-half of the Roman Catholic Church's followers include almost all Europeans, Uveans and Viet Namese, and half of the Melanese and Tahite minority. Among the Lutheran congregations, the Free Evangelical Church (Église Libre), the Evangelical Church in New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands (Église Evangélique en Nouvelle-Calédonie et Îles Loyauté) have the most followers; their membership is almost exclusively Melanesic.
During the first four centuries of the twentieth-century, the Melanese civilization was relatively steady, but by the mid-1980s it had grown to double its size. Approximately four-fifths of the immigrant populations, among them Europeans, Polynesians and Asians, are living there, in comparison with a quarter of the Melanese are. Inhabitants are almost exclusively Melanesic on the Loyalty Islands, the Île des Pins and the Bélep Islands, as well as on the eastern coastline and in the mountains of the principal isle.
The New Caledonian economies are highly dependent on service industries, the extraction of nickels and French government grants. Melanesic homes make on averages only about a quarter of the incomes of Europe's people. There is also an unequal allocation of terrestrial assets on the principal isle. Despite the fact that in Melanesia as a whole the country is dependent on farming, two third of the country is owned by Westerners.
The Europeans also predominate in trade, the economy and the occupations and occupy the most high-ranking positions in the administration. New Caledonia tax consists mainly of customs duty on imports, sale tax and tax on company income. New Caledonia's domestic farm produce covers only part of its needs for meats, fruits and veg.
After the Second World War, the cultivation of coco nuts and coffees began in the nineteenth and early nineteenth centuries, mainly because the Melanese sub-sistence peasants wanted to spread their harvests and start the money-market. Some afforestation schemes, mainly made up of Carribean pines, have been carried out on Melanese lands on the Île des Pins and on hills on the western shore of the principal isle.
In New Caledonia, the decomposition of the serpentin rocks provides a large part of the world-famous copper and copper resources as well as large quantities of chrome, copper, iron in the mineral. Occurrences of copper, ores, plaster on the western shore and phosphate on remote isles are no longer exploited.
Non-commercial reserves are located on the western seaboard. Hydropower from Yaté and Néaoua covers almost half of New Caledonia's demand for electricity, while the rest is generated from heat producers that burn heating oils. New Caledonia, however, has a persistent imbalance of balances of trade. With the European Union (EU) as the main commercial player, most of the EU's commercial activities with New Caledonia take place with France.
New Caledonia and the populated outskirts are surrounded by highways. Almost the whole coastline of New Caledonia can be travelled by car, and crossings lead to the city. Nederlandse Calédonie offers an in-house flight from Magenta airport near Nouméa to the major and sub-regions; Aircalin, an unsurpassed global partner between the company and several other local carriers, offers flights to other South Pacific and Japanese states.
New Caledonia has been granted finite independence within the framework of the Nouméa Agreement of 1998. The Commission appoints three members to the Senate: two to the National Assembly and one to the Senate. It is the leader of France. They are a High Commission nominated by France and the Chairman of the New Caledonian Governments.
France maintains sovereignty over defence, domestic affairs and various other issues. In Nouméa, healthcare and education are of a higher standard than elsewhere in New Caledonia. The only teaching languages in state-sponsored institutions are France. New Caledonia University was established in 1999 and is based in Nouméa.
Despite the attention paid to the game in France, many Melanese men are playing the game. Melanesic wives have widely adopted a variant of Creicket, which was first launched by early English missionsaries to the Loyalty Islands. Each year, Melanese footballs and crickets face off against each other in national contests. The Melanesic tradition is still pronounced in many areas, especially in terms of clans and families.
Use of the language is still high, although French has become the lingua franca due to its dominance in the education system. The Melanesian settlers inhabited the archipelago around 3000 B.C. and, apart from the few Polynesians, were probably isolated from external contacts until the end of the eighteenth cen. 1774 the English sailor and discoverer James Cook arrived on Balade, on the eastern shore of the main land, and called New Caledonia after the home of his Scottish ancestor.
In 1793 the seafarer Antoine de Bruni, a Frenchman, followed, who was a chevalerian of Entrecasteaux. In 1841, with the advent of a London Missionary Society Loyalty Island Evangelical Church and a Marist one established in Balade in 1843 with the help of the Napoleonic Marist Command, the area began a Communist and Latin Catholics present.
In 1853 France conquered most of present-day New Caledonia with ceremonials on the Balade and the Île des Pins with the goal of making the area a possible place for a prisonolony. It was not until 1864 that the popular flags of France were hoisted on the Loyalty Islands. Melanesic revolts were widespread from the period of settler occupation until 1917 and were continually dreaded by colonists and government agencies.
Between 1856-59, the rebellion at Nouméa and 1878-79, which ran along the western coastline from Bouloupari to Poya, threatened the invasion of France. The complaints focused on the seizure of melanese land, the search for food of settler cows in the vegetable garden of the Melanesi, and the polling charge levied by the 1899 settlement colony on the men of Melanesia to force them to find work with the colonists and the state.
They oppressed any insurrection (with the help of native helpers) by devastating towns and harvests and demanding absolute capitulation, and the rebels were penalized by deporting or executing and further confiscating their country. Until 1860 the authorities were set up in the south third of the continent, and in the next ten years the people of France introduced a policy for the elimination of native territories, the reshuffling of the tribe and the appointment of a system of chieftains to replace the people.
At the end of the nineteenth centuary, large parts of the Melanese countryside were estranged and the people were banished to reserva. Though the main purpose of the early Colonies was to take in and keep an eye on some 22,000 prisoners sent to New Caledonia between 1864 and 1897, the people of France also tried to recruit free colonists and cheaper work.
Among them were ni-Vanuatu (the tribal peoples of Vanuatu) and Solomon Islanders (1865-1920), Vietnamese (1891-1939), Javanese (1896-1939) and Japanese (1892-1921). The New Caledonia was also the unlikely home of some 4,000 deportés, exiled politicians from the Paris Commune revolt of 1871, but few of the remaining amnesties.
The majority of the free whites were either former members of the Macedonian army and administrative bodies, Australian and New Zealand colonists or former Réunion cairns. In the 1890s and 20s, the regime urged two subsequent wave of free colonists to emigrate to help build the coffe e/cotton industry, but Europeans stayed in the minorities.
In the post-war period, the number of Europeans grew slowly through immigration, but the largest inflow of colonists from the Polynesia and Europe took place in the years before and inclusive of the 1969-72 nickle booms. Since the beginning of the occupation of France, the policy debates among the whites have focused on the right of the inhabitants to regulate their own matters without jeopardizing the inflow of economic assistance from France.
Until 1953, all New Caledonians were given nationality in France, irrespective of their nationalities. The Melanesians then form a alliance with the Europeans to put the Caledonian Union (Union Calédonienne) in office. The Caledonian Union became an ever more Melanese political group in the 1970' as Europeans left it and turned to support for the cause of autonomy.
The Caledonian Union was the independence front in 1979 in alliance with several Melanese minorities. Under the Lemoine Charter of 1984, the France regime allowed full self-government in regional matters, but the Independence Front refused the Charter and constituted itself as the Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale Kanake et Socialiste; FLNKS).
In the following decade, the FLNKS and a rally for Caledonia in the Republic (Rassemblement for the Calédonie in the Republic; RPCR), a rally with settlers, fostered further relations with France. The Matignon Agreements were renegotiated in 1988 by the RPCR, the FLNKS and the RPCR, which gave a new structure to the policy and consultative fora, giving them far-reaching independence.
Nouméa Agreement was officially ratified in May 1998, adopted by popular vote in November and adopted by both French National Assembly chambers in March 1999.