Network Wiki


id="Terminology">Terminology It is the world' s system of inter-connected computer nets that use the TCP/IP (Internet Protocols Suite) to connect the world. This is a network of grass-roots, national, state, governmental, commercial and institutional network connected by a wide range of electronics, wires and optics/electronics. There is a wide variety of information assets and information exchange via the web, such as networked web pages and World Wide Web (WWW) apps, email, telephony and filesharing. Originally, the web was the subject of research ordered by the US state in the 1960' to establish resilient, fault-tolerant communications with computer-networking.

1 ] The ARPANET, the forerunner network, was used in the 1980' as the initial spine for the integration of local academia and defence network. Financing the National Science Foundation Network as a new spine in the 80s and the privately financed other business expansions resulted in a global involvement in the creation of new network technology and the integration of many different kinds of network.

The interconnection of business and business in the early 90s marked the beginning of the shift to the advanced Internet[3] and led to continued expansion as the network was linked to generation after generation of institutions, individuals and the move. Despite the fact that the web has been widely used by science since the 1980', commercialisation has integrated its benefits and technology into practically every facet of contemporary living.

The majority of conventional communication tools such as telephone, airwaves, television, stationery and newspaper are being redesigned, re-defined or even circumvented by the web, creating new types of service such as e-mails, web conferencing, web TV, on-line audio, electronic papers and webcams. With the advent of the web, new ways of interacting personally through IM, web communities and community networks have become possible and faster.

The impact of business-to-business and online finance service delivery has been felt in the whole industry. Interchangeable use of the words web and world broad web in daily language; it is usual to talk about "going online" when using a web navigator to browse websites. But the WorldWideWeb or the Web is only one of many web based service.

10 ] Hypertext Transmission Protocol, or HTTP, is the web interface protocol used for information transmission, but it is only one of many possible interfaces or protocol that can be used for webcommunications. 11 ] The word Interweb is a port mantle of the web and the world wide web that is usually used in a sarcastic way to spoof a technical savvy reader.

The exploration of package mediation, one of the basic web technology, began in the early 1960' s in the work of Paul Baran,[12] and packet-switched networking such as the NPL network of Donald Davies,[13]ARPANET, Tymnet, the Merit Network,[14]Telenet and CYCLADES,[15][16] were evolved in the late-1970' and late-1970' with a multitude of protocols.

17 ] The ARPANET WORKING NETWORK WORKING PROTOCOLS, which enabled several separated network to be connected into one network. 18 ] The design of ARPANET began with two network hubs connected on October 29, 1969 between the Network Measurement Center of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science under the direction of Leonard Kleinrock and the NLS system at SRI International (SRI) by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California.

20 ][21] These early years were recorded in the 1972 movie Computer Networks: The development of X.25 networking was the focus of attention of various software engineers in Europe. Remarkable exemptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in June 1973, followed by Sweden with satellites to Tanum Earth Station and Peter T. Kirstein's research group in the United Kingdom, first at the Institute of Computer Science, University of London and later at University College London.

23 ][24][25] In December 1974, RFC 675 (Specification of Inter- nets Transmission Control Program) by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine used the concept of the Inter-net as an abbreviation for Inter-networking and later RFCs used it again. 26 ] Access to ARPANET was extended in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) financed the Computer Science Network (CSNET).

1982 saw the standardization of the International Protocol Suite (TCP/IP), which enabled the global distribution of networked workflows. The TCP/IP network was further extended in 1986 when the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet) gave scientists the opportunity to connect to supercomputer locations in the United States, initially at 56 kbit/s and later at 1.

27 ] The emergence of commercially available broadband services (ISPs) dates back to the end of the eighties and early nineties. Until 1995, the US fully commercialised the US web when NSFNet was closed down, thus lifting the last remaining limitations on the use of the web for business purposes. 28 ] The web grew in the middle to the end of the 80s in Europe and Australia[29][30] and in the end of the 80s and the beginning of the 90s in Asia.

31 ] The beginning of a committed trans-atlantic communications between NSSFNET and the European grids was launched in December 1988 with a low-speed space station between Princeton University and Stockholm, Sweden. 32 ] Although other network protocol such as UUCP had already had worldwide coverage long before this period, this signaled the beginning of the Net as an inter-continental network.

In mid-1989, MCI Mail and Compuserve's e-mail functions began to be connected to the 500,000 people using the web for business purposes. Only a few month later, on 1 January 1990, PSInet started an alternative web based industrial network which would become the commercially available one.

Until Christmas 1990 Berners-Lee had developed all necessary utilities for a functioning web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 0.9,[35] the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the first web browsers (which was also an HTML publisher and could handle newsgroup and FTP file access), the first HTTP-Serversoftware ( "CERN httpd"), the first webserver[36] and the first websites, which described the newproject.

1991 the eXchange was established, which enables the company to interact with the other CERFnet and Alternet business network. From 1995, the web has had a huge impact on the cultural and business worlds, with the advent of near-immediate e-mail communications, IM, Voice over IP (VoIP), bidirectional interactivity and the World Wide Web[37] with its panels, blogging, social media and on-line shoppers.

Growing volumes of information are being transferred at ever higher rates over fibre optics at 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s or more. Local ISPs (RIRs) assign IP addresses: 46 ][47][48][49] The International Network Consortium (ISOC) was established in 1992 with the aim of "ensuring the open and open growth, expansion and use of the web for the good of all human beings around the world".

In addition to other work, the ISOC provides an administration home for a number of less formal groups engaged in the development and management of the web, including: the IETF, IAB, IESG, IRTF and IRSG.

The United Nations High-Level Summit on the Information Society in Tunis on 16 November 2005 launched the IGF (Internet Governance Forum) to address questions related to the web. An undersea telecom cable card from 2007 around the globe. Internets communication network is made up of its own set of hard ware and a system of layered softwares that manage different architectural facets.

Package router via the web includes several layers of ISPs. ISPs provide global interconnectivity between the various network layers. Endpoints that only have instant Web connection to execute a feature or get information are the lower part of the route tree. First and foremost in the routeing hierarchies are Tiger 1 grids, large telecommunications operators that directly share transport via peerings.

Beast-2 and low and low layer grids buy web transits from other vendors to at least target some parts of the world wide web, although they can also peer. Interchange points are important points of transport with direct links to the ISP. Big organisations, such as academia, large corporations and government, can play the same role as an ISP by carrying out private sector and buying wholesale services on their own intranet.

As a rule, research nets are connected to large sub-networks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2 and the JANET research and educational network. Not only the IP router as well as the hyperlinks of the World Wide Web are samples of scaleless networking. Endpoints usually use a standard path pointing to an provider that provides traffic, while providers use the Border Gateway Protocol to provide the most effective routings over the world' s most sophisticated interconnections.

Conventional user connection methodologies are dial-up with a computer modems via phone lines, wideband via coax, fibre or coax, Wi-Fi, satellites and mobile phone technologies (e.g. 3G, 4G). You can often reach the web from your computer in a library or cybercafe. You can use the web in many places such as airports and cafés.

Different terminology is used, such as e.g. open web kiosks, open terminals and web payphones. The Wi-Fi provides Wi-Fi connectivity to the web over LAN. Wi-Fi cafés, where people need to have their own Wi-Fi device, such as a notebook or PDA, are among the hot spots that offer such connectivity. The grass-roots effort has resulted in the creation of communities with Wi-Fi connectivity.

You can then reach the web from places like a parking bank. Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experimentation with the use of propriety cell telephone systems such as Ricochet, various high-speed satellite telephony network traffic and stationary cell telephony service. High end cell mobiles such as e.g. smarthphones usually have a telephone network with broadband connection.

There are web browser like Opera available on these sophisticated cell phone, which can also run a number of other web-interfaces. There are more cell phone users with broadband connections than PC's, although this is not as widespread. 57 ] An ISP and a log array distinguish the ways to go on-line.

Whereas the most common use of PC based devices in the web based infrastructures is to provide assistance to other applications, it is the designing and standardisation processes of the application that characterise the web and form the basis for its scaleability and performance. Responsible for the architectonic layout of the web based architecture was taken over by the IETF.

64 ] The IETF carries out open, standardising working groups on the various facets of web architectures for each one. Most important network connection techniques that allow the use of the Web are included in specifically marked Remote Function Calls (RFCs) that form the standards for the Web. Other, less stringent documentation is simple informational, experiential or historic, or records best practice (BCP) in the implementation of web-services.

Web browsing defaults describe a frame known as the Web Protocols' suit. On top is the top part of the network interface, which is the area for the application-specific network methodologies used in computer programs. A web browsing tool, for example, uses the client-server appliance models and a dedicated log for interactions between hosts and hosts, while many filesharing platforms use a peer-to-peer path.

Beneath this top level, the top level links different hosts' application with a logic tunnel over the network with appropriate information sharing method. These shifts are based on the network technology that links the grids at their boundaries and exchanges between them. It allows computer users to mutually recognize and localize each other via IP address and direct their communication over intermediary nets (transit networks).

At the bottom of the architecure is the connecting tier, which enables a logic interconnection between hosting devices on the same network interconnection, such as a LAN or a dial-upconnect. However, TCP/IP logs are usually used in the OSI network debate at the host-router interface plane.

Basically, a concurrent web browser is set up which is not directly available with the IEv4 application. Therefore, there must be the possibility of translating the data for webworking or double network management tools for both network types. Basically, all computer platforms work with both types of protocol. However, the network structure is trailing this trend.

In addition to the complexity of the physics that make up the network structure, the web is made easier by bilateral or multilateral trade treaties, e.g. Peering Arrangements, and by the use of specific technology or protocol that describe the network's communication. In fact, the web is characterized by its connectivity and traffic policy.

There are many network utilities on the web, especially network applications such as the World Wide Web, World Wide Web, email, multiplayer gaming, web calling and file-sharing and more. A lot of folks mistakenly use the words web and world wide web, or just the web, interchangeable, but the two words are not the same.

It is the world wide web, the prime app that millions of human beings use on the web, and it has made an immeasurable difference in their life. 67 ][68] However, the web offers many other features. The Hypertext Transfer Log (HTTP) is the principal accessing log of the World Wide Web. World-wide web browsing applications such as Microsoft IE/Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Apple's Safari and Google Chrome allow navigation from one web page to another via links imbedded in the document.

Searching the web with keywords using Yahoo!, Bing and Google gives global audiences simple, immediate and rich information. In comparison to print publications, textbooks, encyclopedias as well as conventional libaries, the World Wide Web has made it possible to decentralize information on a large scale. 2.

E-advertisement is a type of direct mail that uses the web to send a message to the consumer. By 2011, the United States' web ad revenue was higher than that of CATV and almost equalled that of TV. E-mail is an important communication tool on the web.

Before the emergence of the web, the idea of transmitting text message electronically between the various partners in a way that corresponds to the transmission of a letter or memo. Another joint telecommunications system made possible by the establishment of the Internets is the use of telephone services over the web. Voice over IP (VoIP) refers to the underlying Voice over IP protocols of all your web connections.

Advantage is that, since the web supports speech communication, it can be free or much less expensive than a conventional phone call, especially over long distance and especially for those who always have access to the web such as cables or DSL. Over the years, Telephony over IP has become a competitively priced option to conventional phone services.

There are easy, low-cost network adaptors available that make a PC superfluous. Currently, a few ISPs offer an urgent call center that is not available everywhere. Earlier conventional telephones without "extra features" can only be supplied with electricity and function in the event of a blackout; Voice over IP can never do this without a back-up supply of electricity for the telephone system and IACs.

This is an example of the transmission of large volumes of information over the web. You can upload it to a website or FTP site (File Transfer Protocol) to be downloaded by others. By using "mirror" services or peer-to-peer networking, the burden of downloading bulks can be reduced to many people.

However, in any of these cases, it is possible to control accessibility to the data via authenticated users, encrypt the transfer of the data over the web, and make it possible for cash to transfer the data from one owner to another. You can pay the fee by means of payment by bank transfer, e.g. from a major international bank account, the data of which is also transmitted over the net - usually completely ciphered.

The simplicity of the web, through a global base, changes the way anything that can be limited to a computer filename for transfer is produced, sold and distributed. The real term for the provision of instant consumer viewing or viewing of streamed music. A lot of TV and broadcast stations offer web based streams for their webcasts of living sound and videocast.

A number of purely online stations that never had on-air licences join these suppliers. That means that a piece of equipment that' s linked to the web, such as a computer or something more specifically, can be used to connect to online devices like a TV or wireless only.

There have been new ways of interacting, engaging in activity and forming societal alliances. It is this phenomena that has led to scientific research into the psychology of the Internets. English is the predominant medium for communicating on the web. It can be due to both the origins of the web and the function of languages as lingua franca.

The most searched after English (27%) are Chinese (25%), Spanish (8%), Japanese (5%), Japanese and Germany (4% each), Arabian, Russian and Frensh (3% each) and Korean the most searched language on the web (2%). In regional terms, 42% of global web traffic is in Asia, 24% in Europe, 14% in North America, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 6% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania.

There is greater working time and geographical mobility on the web, particularly through the proliferation of unmeasured high-speed links. Access to the web is possible almost everywhere, even via portable webcams. Cellular telephones, data cards, hand-held gaming terminals and wireless router enable a wireless connection to the IST.

To the extent restricted by small displays and other restricted capabilities of such pocket-sized equipment, web site resources, such as e-mail and the web, may be available. Operators may limit the range of available content and the cost of using your phone to send and receive information may be significantly higher than with other means of accessing it. A group can not only exchange cheap communication and exchange thoughts, but the broad range of the web can also make such groups easier to build.

Whether via an IRC chats room, an IM system or a web site for online community sharing, it allows co-workers to keep in contact during the workday. This cooperation takes place in a multitude of areas, among them academic research, computer science, computer science, conferencing, political activities and creativity at work.

The dissemination of broadband and computer skills is also increasing in terms of increasing cooperation in the fields of society and politics. It allows computer-user to connect to other computer and information storage devices from any point of time. It can be accessed with computer safety, i.e. authentification and encoding technology, as required.

Those account balances could have been generated by accountants working at home in other far-flung places, using information sent to them by e-mail from agencies around the globe. While some of these things were possible before the spread of the use of the web, the costs of privately owned rental circuits would not have made many of them feasible in use.

A non-working employee, perhaps on a traveling or vacation job, can read his e-mails, connect to his information via VPN (Virtual Privat Network) or initiate a distant desktops meeting on the web to his computer.

It can give the employee full control over all his or her regular computer assets, as well as e-mail and other apps, while away from the workstation. System admins refer to it as a VPN [93] because it expands the safe size of an enterprise network to distant sites and the home of its people.

A lot of them use the World wide Web to get the latest information, to check out the latest sport and meteorological forecasts, to schedule and reserve holidays and to follow their own interests. New ways of socialization and interaction have been developed through online networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Myspace. Site visitors are able to provide a wealth of information, share interests and link to others.

Both YouTube and Flickr specialise in user video and photos. Whereas in the beginning the purpose of online networks was only for individual people, today they are used by companies and other organisations to advertise their brand, sell their clients and "viralise" contributions. Certain Web pages, such as Reddit, have policies that prohibit the post of individual personally identifiable information (also known as doxxing), as there are doubts about such submissions that result in a large number of Web surfers harassing the identifiable people.

A further area of recreational activities on the web is multi-player gambling. 98 ] This kind of rest is creating a community where individuals of all age groups and backgrounds can experience the fast-paced universe of MPG. A lot of them use the web to listen to music, films and other works to relax and unwind.

However, some of these resources take more precautions than others with regard to the copyright of the originating artist. The use of the web has been linked to the solitude of the user. 100 ] Lone wolves have a tendency to use the web as an outlet for their emotions and to exchange their tales with others, as for example in the theme "I am lonesome when someone talks to me".

"Heavily scattered small groups of practicing men who are largely anonym in the wider societal contexts and who work in a relatively secretive manner, while still distant from a wider network of faithful who have a series of practises and writings in common and often a shared dedication to a particular director. "In particular, the UK has expressed concern that young UK Muslims are becoming Indoctrinated into Muslim Islamism through online materials, joining groups of terrorists such as the so-called "Islamic state" and then possibly perpetrating attacks after struggles in Syria or Iraq.

Teleworking is the service within a long-standing employee-employer relation when it is made easier through the use of utilities such as teamware, personal networking, conferencing, video conferencing and vice-over-IP (VOIP), so that work can be done from anywhere, most comfortably from home. With the advent of high-speed connectivity, more and more home users have sufficient home access to connect their home to their own intranets and communications network.

For many, the Web has been seen as an expansion of the Hymasian concept of the general publics and observed how network communications technology offers something like a kind of universal citizens' forums. But in many states, even in the West, there are now events of political onlineensurisation. Web assets, computer equipment and softwares are the targets of criminals or wilful attempt to obtain unauthorised controls to cause disruption, cheating, extortion or accessing personal information.

Large ISPs in Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden have volunteered to limit accessibility to the websites enumerated by the EHIC. 135 ] Many states, and the United States included, have passed legislation against the ownership or dissemination of certain materials, such as children's scams, via the Web, but do not require filtering softwares.

There are many free or commercial off-the-shelf applications, also known as contolftware, available to the user to prevent inappropriate sites on single machines or network, to restrict children's accessing pornography or to display force. Global Report 2017/2018, 202, UNESCO.

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