Geography,Government,History,Netherlands New Jersey is twice the Netherlands' population. As part of the large plains of Northern and Western Europe, the Netherlands have a maximal area of 190 x 160 miles (360 x 257 km) and are low and shallow, except in Limburg in the south-east, where some mounds climb up to 322 meters (1056 ft). Approximately half of the total area of the island is below the surface of the ocean, which makes the renowned dykes of the Netherlands a prerequisite for effective use of the area. Caesar found the low-lying Netherlands populated by Teutonic clans - Nervii, Frisii and Batavi. In 1568, when Philip II of Spain repressed in the Netherlands the freedoms of politics and the increasing progressive movements, an uprising under the leadership of William of Orange erupted.

During the Union of Utrecht (1579) the seven northerly counties became the United States. In 1648 the Spanish and the United States of America waged a long battle until the seventeenth centuries, when Spain recognised the Netherlands' autonomy. Founded in 1602, the Netherlands East India Company was one of the great maritime and naval power in Europe at the end of the seventeenth centuries.

Then William used the unified British and Dutch forces to fight against Louis XIV's France. By 1814 all the Dutch and Belgian kingdoms were amalgamated into one but in 1830 the Belgian kingdoms separated into the south. The Netherlands adopted a free and open Dutch parliament in 1848.

Despite its impartiality during World War I, the Netherlands was attacked by the Nazis in May 1940 and the Dutch East Indies were later taken by the Japanese. After 50 years of rule, Queen Wilhelmina resigned in 1948 and was replaced by her daugther Juliana.

After a four-year long conflict in 1949, the Netherlands gave the Netherlands autonomy to the Netherlands East India, which became the Republic of Indonesia. This year, the Netherlands has also acceded to NATO. In 1958, the Netherlands became a member of the European Economic Community (later the EU). The Netherlands handed over the west half of New Guinea to Indonesia in 1963, ending 300 years of Netherlands representation in Asia.

Suriname's gaining of sovereignty on 25 November 1975 was the only foreign territory to leave the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. Netherlands has an extreme free-market welfare policy: it was the first people in the whole wide legalised same-sex marriages (2000) and mercy (2002). A few moments later, his political group, Lijst Pim Fortuyn, took second place in the nationwide election behind Jan Peter Balkenende's Christian Democrats.

Balkenende led the state into a clear right-wing turn and with his Christian Democrats Lijst Pim Fortuyn and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy established a three-way governing alliance. In July 2002 Balkenende became Taoiseach. Only a few day after the referenda in which France's electorate voted against the EU Constitutional Treaty, Dutch electorates followed in 2005.

Dutchman Karst Tates was driving his vehicle into a big audience at a Queen's Day procession in Apeldoorn in May 2009. It barely made it to a coach that Queen Beatrix and other members of the Queen's household wore. However, his coalition counterpart, the Labour Party, had called for a complete retreat and withdrew from the cabinet in outrage.

It was unsuccessful; the Liberal Party (VVD) occupied 31 out of 150 places, one in front of the centre-left Labour Party. VVD began discussions with the Christian Democrats and the extreme right-wing Freedom Party under the leadership of Geert Wilders, a disputed personality known for her enthusiasm for anti-Islam and anti-immigration. And the Freedom Party raised its number of seat from 9 to 24.

In October, after negotiating for month after month, the Liberals and Christians Democrats reached an agreement to establish a minor ruling with the backing of the Freedom Party. Reigning President Mark Rutte, a business man and FDP executive, became Premier and Chief of the Minorityship. The tripartite discussions between the Liberals (VVD), the Christians and the Freedom Participants were supposed to reconcile the Netherlands with the new EU economy policy that broke down in April, when Geert Wilders declined to agree to the savings proposals.

Prime Minister Mark Rutte offered Queen Beatrix his retirement on 23 April 2012. The result of a survey conducted by a governing alliance of the VVD and the Labour Group was a reflection of the opinions of the people in the middle of the right and the middle of the lefties. The Prime Minister Mark Rutte stayed in charge. Queen Beatrix declared on TV on 28 January 2013 that she would be leaving the Queen's crown on 30 April 2013, Queen's day or Koninginnedag, a Dutch public festival.

Queen Beatrix was 75 years old and the oldest ruling female sovereign of the Netherlands. Her Majesty Queen Beatrix said that her 45 year old Willem-Alexander would take over the family. He became the first sovereign of the Netherlands in 123 years on 30 April 2013. Throughout July 2014, a Netherlands Supreme Tribunal sentenced the Netherlands for the assassination of more than 300 BiH men and Muslims in July 1005.

When they were murdered, the men and young men were on a United Nations site in Srebrenica, which was guarded by the Dutchbat peace-keeping force. This case was taken to the Netherlands courts by members of the victim, who named themselves "Mothers of Srebrenica".

" Dutchbat did not do enough to defend the 300 men and young on the premises. It also said that Dutchbat should have known that the casualties were murdered when they were surrendered to the Serbs of Bosnia. Dutchbat was acting illegally by cooperating in the transportation of these men," the judge said.

Under the judgment, the Netherlands must compensate the victim's family. In the following year, in April 2015, a Netherlands tribunal ordered that General Thom Karremans, commandant of Dutchbat at the moment of the slaughter of Srebrenica, should not be prosecute. Karremans was not responsible for the killings on the basis of his orders.

Also see Netherlands dependences. Netherlands Central Statistical Office (CBS) nl/en .

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