Micronesia Island NamesMikronesia Island names
Micronesian Phones - Micronesian Registry
Federated States of Micronesia is an autonomous island country made up of four states: There are 607 isles and 700 km2 of oceans stretching over 2,700 km. It is a small country, but it covers over 2,600,000 km of the Pacific and each of its four states is centred around much larger high islets.
FSM was found over four thousand years ago by the chieftains known as the Micronesians. Federated States of Micronesia, or in brief, the FSM was part of the TTPI, a fiduciary under the U.S. Administration of the United Nations, but then went to establish its own regime on May 10, 1979.
Not long before other small neighbouring countries formed their own government so that the FSM could win a place in the United Nations.
A bibliography of analysis and a guide to interpretation
Micronesia's tradition is marked by non-European interpretation and standard. Starting with introductory articles on questions of Micronesian and Pacific writing in general, this volume questions the present way of thought and perception of the Pacific literature. The many stories in the cover show that there are many ways to access Pacific culture.
The writers focus on scientific works that are deliberately historic in character and offer the reader the possibility to investigate the particularities of the Micronese history, which has developed in four different phases of government in Europe.
The Federated States of Micronesia civilization
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), founded in 1978, are an island country in the Caroline Island Province of the West Pacific. From 1947 to 1986, these were managed by the United States as part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Island. United Nations trust was ended in 1986, when the FSM and the United States concluded a Compact of Free Association, which provided the FSM with funding in support of the U.S. authorities in foreign policy and defence issues until the year 2000.
While a common nationhood was important for negotiating economically and politically with outside parties, socio-cultural variety within the FSM is increasingly becoming the trademark of islanders' identificati. Micronesia's Federated States consist of 607 isles with a combined area of 270 sq. km (700 sq. km) spread over more than one million sq. km (2. 6 million km) of the West Pacific.
There are four different types of geo-political states: Western to Eastern, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae. Palikir, the FSM's capitol, is situated in a mountain area on the island of Pohnpei. In every state there are both mountains of volcanoes and deep situated altolls of corals, with the exeption of Kosrae, which has a mountainside island.
Vulcan islets have a wider variety of environmental areas, which include an inner layer of thick rainforest and rising hills, a coastline of burrs and tortuous depressions and thick morass marshes that cover the coast. Almost all FSM inhabited almost all of the FSM archipelagos after the European invasion of disease in the mid-19th century.
Part of the decline in demographic development is due to the migration and free circulation of people between the FSM and the United States and its territory, which the Compact of Free Association allows. However, it is a second and most Micronesians' languages. Practically every island in the FSM is associated with its own Austronesian (Malay-Polynesian) linguistic group.
Except for some Polynesians, the island' s inhabitants Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and the Yap state's atoll of corals are considered nuclear-micronesian. Mainland Yapesi speaking a West Micronese tongue. Four blank whites on a clear ocean on the FSM flags represent the four united states in a wide area of the West Pacific.
It uses the ocean and the marine issues associated with angling and travel as a symbol of a pan-Micronesian identitys. In the debate on the country's own nationhood, the focus is also on island nutrition and the country on which it is cultivated. Nevertheless, the meetings of ethnic Micronesians during nationwide meetings show shows and the associated symbolic value that emphasizes the country's wealth of culture.
By the end of the Second World War, the United States took over Micronesia. Before this period, the island was ruled in succession by Spain, Germany and Japan. By 1947, the whole area became known as the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Isles (TTPI), a geo-political unit fully managed by the United States.
Micronesia Congress was founded in 1964 as the first symbol of the autonomous movement of Micronesia. Micronesia's geographical position on the brink of the Asiatic continent gave the island' s inhabitants influence in their talks with the United States, which began in 1969. It was hoped to create a nationwide identities and unify all the counties under a constitution.
However, the relatively large US defence interests in the Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and Palau encouraged the heads of these regions to negotiate separately. The electorate from the other four main constituencies (Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae) voted in a 1978 referenda in favour of the FSM.
While the new administration officially began its work in 1979, it stayed under the auspices of the United States until 1986, when the Compact of Free Association came into force. In 1991, the United Nations embraced the FSM as a supreme state. That'?s our country's identity. Creating a nationwide identities was not simple given the disparities between the socio-cultural practice, language and resource of the island.
However, the continued importance of the FSM's commercial and military relations with the United States and other overseas forces has helped to create a sense of nationhood. Identifying FSM citizens as a country is largely a reaction to the United States' promotion of social and cultural dependence.
It is a recent supra-local phenomenon that seldom suppresses the importance of community in everyday life. FSM members value their identities as members of different ethnical groups with different social customs and culture. "In order to make a country of many isles, we must show our appreciation for the variety of our culture.
We are supported by our isles, our island nation expands us and makes us more powerful. Though these groups have at one time adopted a pan-Micronesian identities in their dealings with outside forces, they still have a powerful ethnical affinity and a variety of interests. However, other differences such as town, classes, relatives and religion often take priority over race when it comes to the definition of the islanders' identities.
Spatial use is related to the importance of sub-sistence farming in the island community. City dwellers who depend on the money industry are located in the immediate vicinity of administrative agencies and workplaces. As a rule, they have little farmland, although they often maintain small backyards on home properties.
High island country towns are close to the ocean and large private garden dedicated to the growing of tarot, yams, sweet potatoes or changos. One of the most important facets of Micronesia's existence is the importance of nutrition both socially and symbolically. The most common form of cooking is seafood, which is regarded as an integral part of the cuisine.
Nautical and traveling topics are important secular culture in Micronesia; the ocean is seen as the connecting and not the dividing element of meal. At Pohnpei, for example, pork, sweet potatoes and sacau (a drink with psychoactivity made from Pipers Methylum root) are the most popular dishes served at festivals.
Despite reference to sub-sistence products and "traditional" prescriptions at festivals, imported foods from abroad are becoming increasingly important as a trademark of prosperity among people. Fundamental economics. Treasury management is almost entirely reliant on US money flows. The United States has provided the United States with approximately $100 million per year in Compact of Free Association funding and additional subsidies since 1986.
The FSM's publicsector promotes the money industry and promotes a small, service-oriented privacy. Sub-sistence farming is founded on small-scale gardening, fisheries and the extraction of natural resource in related island areas. There is no exclusion of these two sectors of the business world, and many smallholders and fishermen move to and from the tills.
Transfers from members of the families who participate in the money industry also complement the incomes of those families that are mainly active in subsidy farming. A prestigious industry founded on tribal patterns of stature, mutuality and exchanges cuts across these two economic aspects. Property and ownership. The small FSM islets are in short supply.
There have been developments on the island in the form of intricate, varied and often competitive property structures that regulate property and right of way to the area. In most of the isles, entry to the country can be dependent on belonging to a line or group. Except for Yap and some Atollen, in the state of Pohnpei, where patriarchal allegiance regulated the transfer of lands laws, matrilineal goods were conventionally inspected in Micronesia.
Following a hundred years of collective domination, the system of property followed the road away from corporative, ancestral group property towards individualisation of possession. Moreover, the nuclearisation of the domestic economy and a greater personal self-interest associated with westernisation weaken the lines of property management system. Merchandising goods and importing groceries is the main pillar of the many mom-and-pop stores and major retail and wholesale outlets spread across the isles.
FSM's economies are suffering from the impoverishment of industries. Agriculture is constrained by high handling charges and the scarcity of farmland. The absence of adequate infrastructures, insufficient hotels and restricted traffic hinder the growth of a bulk tourism population. At an average of 5 per cent of GNP, the country's economic exports are small.
Naval goods make up about 80 per cent of the national goods exports marke. Tuna, the main navy exporter, is exported to Japan, Guam, Taiwan, Korea and the United States. Formation is one of the most important foundations for the distribution of work in the treasury industry. The work of the sub-sistence farmers is mainly split according to the sex.
Caroline communities are a multi-faceted aggregation of tribal rankings and income-oriented socio-economic groupings. There are many different rankings traditionally found on the isles, but the biggest difference in rankings is typical in the high isles, where rankings are primarily based on parentage, length of service and the relation between humans and the country.
Ages, sex, performance and special skills as well as relationship and territorial entitlements are typical for the determination of state atollen. However, the achievements in the free enterprise system represent another layered layer in the FSM, which in some cases has undermined the differences in tribal standing. Meeting and festival buildings are important places of micro-nesian interactions.
Increasingly important among players in the markets is the build-up of goods and striking consumerism, the hallmark of income-related differences in-classes. FSM's structures of governance are oriented towards the US policy-makers. From among its members, the Congress elects the Chairman, the Chief of the Board, for a four-year period.
It is the constituent part of the National Congress and consists of fourteen members of the Senate. Supreme Court, made up of judicial and appeal departments, shall be presided over by a Supreme Judge and not more than five associated judges who shall be nominated by the Presidents with the Council and the approval of the National Congress for lifetime.
Governance at state, community and state level is strongly linked to established ways of managing locally. At Chuuk and Pohnpei, many judges also have pedigree degrees, and senior civil servants often have genealogy links with conventional guides. FSM's court structures are modelled on the legal system of the United States with federated court and appeal departments and state and regional superior and tribunals.
Companies throughout the FSM have a wide range of official and informational forms of societal scrutiny. The feeling of entrepreneurial stewardship among family members, combined with the interdependency of island communities, slows down disturbing behaviour. In accordance with the Compact of Free Association between the FSM and the United States, the United States is given full sovereignty and accountability for the safety and defence of the United States.
Free-of-charge government training is made possible through US funding, US Department of Commerce subsidies and small investment schemes that also offer fellowships for United States scholars. The activities of NGOs in the FSM are limited by the US and its support agencies' powerful funding representation.
Of those participating in the subsistence sector, sex is an important orderly system in the work-sharing. High-level posts in regional religions and politics are primarily occupied by men, although in some communities ecclesial women's organisations offer their own system of hierarchy among them. The fact of participating in the free enterprise system has obscured the rigid definition of the role of the sexes in sub-sistence farming.
In the FSM, 52 per cent of women aged 15 and over take part in the money industry, in comparison to 66 per cent of men. The cobbled street in the seaside town of Kolonia, Pohnpei. The Pohnpei is the principal island in Micronesia where greater involvement of women in the money market challenges men's role and reduces the complementarities between men's and women's work.
In many Micronese associations, marital associations that form close ties and focus on country, riches and stature, such as preferred cross-marriage, are preferred. As a rule, there is a requirement for official weddings to include the sharing of presents between the spouses' relatives and the celebration of the event, and may include the transmission of property between the host family members.
Wherever patrimony is the rule (Pohnpei, Yap), the home can be a common familiy of brethren, their spouses and sons, or a clan comprising several generation of father-son relationships. On the other hand, the matri-local domicile (preferably on the Outlying Isles of Chuuk and Yap) creates a home made up of related females and married men.
The neo-local community, which promotes the establishment of core communities, is becoming more popular due to the westernization and impact of the free enterprise. Traditions regulating the heritage of lands, physical possessions and certain crafts or traditions are hampered by the fast rate of westernization. Country is another topic. Wherever a group of companies owns real estate, usufructuary titles are either transferred to one line either in matrilineal or patrilineal form at the time of delivery or at the time of heredity.
Lifetime usage privileges on certain properties can be shared by the patriarchal leader among his spouses (patrilineal) or the spouse's spouse (matrilineal). With the increasing adoption of traditional property laws and legacy laws, individuals are becoming more likely to own property. The relationship in Micronesia goes far beyond the boundaries of the housing area.
The Yap island is home to both a localised patrilinean manor and a scattered Matrilian clan. Here, the local ised is located. Yap's outskirts and chukese are organised in matriilineal lines and tribes that divide the landhold. Matriilineal classes can also be found on Pohnpei, where their impact has been reduced by the accumulant.
Although based on the principle of ancestry, these expanded relationships are confirmed and legitimised through achievement, which includes the shared use of lands, nourishment and natural ressources. Due to the importance of interactions in small island populations, babies are taken outward, away from the owner. Increased involvement in the free enterprise sector focuses on higher tertiary level in the FSM.
The majority of these undergraduates are registered at branches of the College of Micronesia, while a small number of them are awarded fellowships to attend college in the United States. Micronesian label regulations concentrate on the representation of esteem in relation to family, sex, religion, age, politics and titles. In matriilineal society, a respectful attitude towards the mother's sibling is characterized by the use of courteous speech and bodily evasion on form.
Man with a small kid in front of his home in Kolonia, Pohnpei, Caroline Islands. Micro-Romanesian labels reflect the accentuation of a harmonic, unassertive and irreverent behaviour. Today about half of the local populace is Catholics and half belongs to various Lutheran cults, especially the United Church of Christ (Congregational).
A many Micronesians still believe in the powers of their late forebears to affect the incidents and livelihoods of ghosts and spiritual possessions. The island communities depended on a multitude of faith experts to reconcile the sacred worlds before convert. In many parts of Micronesia, the church work is dominated by the rural rites of the Church.
The most important sacred places and often the most striking building in the Micronese population. This is an event for great celebrations in all island associations of the FSM. As a rule, the corpse is buried on the traditional country or in the graveyard of the curch. In some of the isles, the formal grief among closest relatives and acquaintances can last for several additional days.
Historically, the island's health practices have been closely linked to religion. Today, Micronesians are relying on West European bio-medicine in conjunction with local cures. Each state has a major clinic and many pharmacies are spread across the island municipalities, but the lack of qualified physicians places a considerable strain on the service.
New Year' s Day (1 January), Constitution Day (10 May), United Nations Day (24 October) and Swiss Holiday (3 November) are some of the most popular public holiday days. Exhibitions of Micronesian arts are scarce and mostly limited to local museum and university exhibitions. However, there is a tendency towards greater participation by Micronesians in Pacific arts venues such as the Pacific Festival of Arts, which takes place in various locations in the South Pacific, and the Rarotonga Festival of Pacific Arts, which takes place in Rarotonga, Cook Islands.
Verbal writing takes a particular place among the art forms of Micronese society. In addition to the work of international scientists, a number of Micronesians have written down tribal stories, legends and people. Kapingamarangi in Pohnpei and Chuukese also make fine wood carvings, mostly for tourist use. In Micronese society it is very important to use the forms of musical and dancing to communicate the islanders' identities and the memory of time.
During the U.S. Naval Administration's term of office, three large research projects with more than 30 scientists were financed. Thousands of international explorers, mainly from the United States, have since come to the island. However, the College of Micronesia, the only college in the country, does not fund large research programmes.
Micronesians with university degrees often take their talent elsewhere and thus contribute to the so-called "brain drain" of the area. "Alkire, William H. An initiation into the peoples and cultures of Micronesia, 1977. Federal States of Micronesia population profile: Customs, democracies and anthropology in post-war Micronesia. Federal States of Micronesia.
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