Historical, Geographical, Facts & Sightseeing Mexico
Mexico, home to South North America and the third biggest Latin American nation, after Brazil and Argentina. Though there is little Truth to the long-held Stereotyp of Mexico as a gradual landmark of subistence peasants, Mexican society is marked by excesses of riches and misery, with a finite center-range of landlords and investors on the one side, and crowds of agricultural and municipal paupers on the other.
However, despite the challenge facing Mexico as a development state, it is one of the most important economical and politic powers in Latin America. The Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexico ), as its name implies, comprises 31 different social and physical states and the Federal District. Over half of the population of Mexico lives in the center of the nation, while large parts of the dry northern and southern tropics are underdeveloped.
Immigrants from depleted countryside have invaded the towns of Mexico, and almost four-fifths of Mexicans now reside in the city. City of Mexico, the capitol, is one of the most densely populated towns and metropolises in the whole wide globe. It has undergone a succession of booming economies, which led to times of remarkable achievements in society, followed by the bust with a marked decline in the standard of life of the lower and middle-class.
Mexico's difficulties in terms of growth are in stark contrast to the more remote countryside's conventional life styles. These cities in turn appear as historic relicts in comparison to the contemporary Mexican cityscape. But Mexico's busy capitol, constantly erected and reconstructed on the ruins of past civilisations, also exposes a broad spectrum of societal, economical and intercultural wars.
The famous Mexico writer and thinker Octavio Paz noted that past eras never quite disappear, and the bleeding still comes from all their sores, even the oldest. At times, the most distant or enemy convictions and emotions can be found together in a town or a spirit, or overlap like[pre-Columbian] pyrramids that almost always hide others.
It' s this enormous variety of cultures and economies, spread over an extremely diverse and diverse natural setting, that gives Mexico its uniqueness. Mexico borders the United States to the north, the Pacific to the north, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean to the north and Guatemala and Belize to the north.
It also manages the Pacific and Cozumel and Mujeres archipelagos, such as the Tres Marías, off the Yucatán Peninsula. México is situated in one of the most vibrant tectonical regions on earth. Citlaltépetl (also known as Orizaba ), which at 5,610 meters is the highest point of the land, and the popular Popocatépetl vulcano, which reaches 5,465 meters south-east of Mexico City, are among the highest summits of the area.
This and other Mexico volcanos are geologically young, from the Palaeogene and Neogene Period (about 65 to 2.6 million years ago), and are an example of the vulcanic powers that formed much of the main and south of the state. It is located on the west or eastern rim of the vast plate of the Americas, whose interactions with the Pacific, Coconut and Carribean plate have led to many heavy seismic events and earthquake-like events in the jagged countryside of the South.
The Mexicans have established their land in this vibrant and often instable natural world. There are nine large physiographical areas in Mexico: The Baja California, Pacific Coast, Mexico Plateau, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, Cordillera Neo-Volcánica, Gulf Coast, Southern Highlands and Yucatán Peninsula.
Baja California in north-western Mexico is an insulated stretch of ultra-dry country stretching between the Pacific and the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez). At the heart of the promontory is a granite rift rock with summits more than 2,700 meters above the surface of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir and Sierra de Juárez.
These mountains' gentle slopes to the west stand in stark opposition to the precipitous east slope, which makes accessing them from the California Bay very hard. Sonoran Desert stretches to the northeast end of the bay. From Mexicali and the Colorado River Valley in the Northeast, the Pacific coast ends near Tepic, about 1,450 km southward.
Most of this route crosses the Gulf of California, while crossing the states of Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit. Bordered to the west by the Sierra Madre Occidental, the plains are a succession of seaside patios, Mesa and small pools with river delta and limited coastline.
Though the huge Sonoran desert controls its northerly part, parts of the lowland have been watered and made arable. Mexico's biggest and most populous area is the inner plain, bordered by the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre orientental. It is made up of the wide Mesa del Norte (northern plateau) and the smaller but dense Mesa Central (Mesa de Anáhuac).
Mesa del Norte begins near the US frontier, includes large parts of the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, Jalisco and Aguascalientes and ends near the town of San Luis Potosí. The Mesa Central extends from there to a point just south of Mexico Town. It slopes softly from northeast to southeast; at its northerly end, the Mesa del Norte lies about 1,200 meters above seag.
Mesa Central comprises large parts of the states of Michoacán, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo and México as well as the Federal District (Mexico City). It' south end is 7,000-9,000 ft (2,100-2,700 meters) near Mexico City. Mesa Central, wetter and generally shallower than Mesa del Norte, is subdivided into a number of fairly shallow intermontaneous pools delimited by volcanoes.
The Bajío (El Bajío, or Guanajuato Basin), the land's bread basket traditionally found in the north of Mesa Central, is among the generally fruitful caves. The still existing fragile, structural instability around Mexico City has moved the Metropolitan Cathedral and other old settlement structures to their foundation and planted or sunk them irregularly into the soil for many years.
Sierra Madre Occidental, which is largely vulcanic and constitutes the west boundary of the Mexican plateau, has an altitude of 2,400 to 2,700 meters on mean and stretches about 700 kilometers (1,100 km) from west to west. Sierra Madre Oriental, a mountain chain of slate and limestone, lies on the east side of the Mexican plateau.
It is often seen as an elongation of the Rocky Mountains (intersected by the Rio Grande but continuing in New Mexico and west Texas), running about 700 kilometers (1,100 km) from the north to the southwest before melting into the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica. It' averages are similar to those of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but some summits are over 3,650 m high.
Cordillera Neo-Volcánica, also known as the Neo-Volcanic Axis or Trans-Volcanic Axis, is a geographically energetic massif whose smouldering cinders connect the Sierra Madre Occidental with the Sierra Madre orientental at the south rim of the Mesa Central. It traverses Mexico from Cape Corrientes on the western to Xalapa and Veracruz on the east coastline and provides a hilly setting for the states of Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, México, Morelos and Puebla as well as the Federal District.
This Gulf coastline, much broader than the Pacific Ocean, stretches from the state of Tamaulipas (on the Texas border) via Veracruz and Tabasco to the Yucatán Peninsula and encompasses the Tabasco Plains in the south-eastern part. It is a three-cornered part of the plateau, characterised by marshes and deep marshes, more than 160 km wide near the US frontier, but tapering to the north.
To the north of the harbour of Tampico, an escapee of the Sierra Madre orientental arrives at the ocean and disrupts the continuation of the Gulf Coast flat. Southwards of this the plains are small and uneven and extend at the north end of the isthmus of Tehuantepec. Southern Highlands are a range of rugged mountains and plateaux, among them the Sierra Madre del Sur, Mesa del Sur and the Chiapas Highlands, also known as Sierra Madre de Chiapas.
To the southwest, from Puerto Vallarta to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, there are a number of relatively low mountain chains, together known as the Sierra Madre del Sur. At an altitude of 2,100 to 2,400 meters, the crystal-clear peaks often make their way to the ocean to form a jagged coastline, part of which is known as the Mexican Riviera.
A number of seaside resorts such as Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Acapulco and Puerto Escondido have developed into enticing travel locations. Further to the north-east lies the Mesa del Sur, with many mountain ranges and small, insulated dales that have been dug up by streams, some 1,200 to 1,500 meters aboveseas. It' one of the impoverished areas of Mexico. The isthmus of Tehuantepec halves the southern highlands, a low-lying, narrower headland that rises to an altitude of less than 900ft.
It is a mountainous region with small coastlines in the southern part and the Tabasco plain in the northern part. Chiapas highlands are an expansion of the hill chains of Middle America. The low, crystal Sierra de Soconusco on the Pacific coastline is situated in the uplands. In between the Tabasco Plain, a south-eastern prolongation of the Gulf Coastline, there is a group of strongly fragmented, pleated and disturbed hills.
Yucatán Peninsula is located to the north-east of the Tabasco Plain and forms a dividing line between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Mexico has few large streams or lagoons due to its climate and land form. Most of them are in the centre of the state.
From the Toluca Basin in western Mexico City, the Lerma River runs westwards to Chapala Sea, the country's biggest lakes. Then the Santiago River runs out of the sea to the northeast and crosses the Sierra Madre Occidental on its way to the Pacific Ocean. Pánuco and its affluents, the Moctezuma and Santa María, flow eastwards from Mesa Central and plunge through canyons in the Sierra Madre East on their way to the Gulf of Mexico.
Pátzcuaro and Cuitzeo Lake, just westwards of Mexico City, are the remains of huge seas and swamps that occupied much of the south of Mesa Central before the arrival of Europe. In the dry Mesa del Norte there are few continuous creeks, most of which flow inland rather than into the North.
Balsas River and its affluents are draining the Balsas Depression and much of the eastern part of Mesa Central. The Balsas, where it passes through the Sierra Madre del Sur, is an important waterway. Grijalva and Usumacinta, together with the Papaloapan River, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico just to the South of Veracruz, make up about two-fifths of the Mexican rivers' population.
The creeks on the western and eastern coast are brief and precipitous, as the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre orientental are formed near the coast edges. The Yaqui, Fuerte and Culiacán Creeks have been impounded along the Pacific coast and are supporting huge watered-field. In the entire southeast of Mexico, high rainfall produces barren red or yello laterite soil with a high content of ferric oxide and aluminium hydroxide.
Mesa Central's wealthiest soil is the chernozem-like vulcanic soil. Mexico has a broad spectrum of climate because of its enormous dimensions and topographical variety. These areas attract sea breezes from the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific due to relatively low pressure over ground.
The lowlands near the coast are home to widespread whirlwinds spawning in the ocean on both sides of the land from August to October. North Mexico is ruled by the Sonoran and Khihuahuan desert, and dry and semi-arid weather prevails over much of the Mexican plateau. The altitude is a great climate in most parts of Mexico, and several perpendicular climate areas are known.
Veracruz, for example, on the Gulf of Mexico, has an mean daytime temperatures of about 77 °F (25 °C). The" moderately pristine land" stretches over 1,800 meters and encompasses the town of Xalapa at an altitude of more than 1,400 meters, where the daytime mean is 66 °F (19 °C).
Located above Tierra fraia are the Praramos or mountain meadows and the tierra helada ("frozen land"), a continuous border of white powder in the centre of Mexico at 4,000-4,270m. The northern part of the Mesa del Norte, where summers and winters are extremely hot, is the northernmost part.
Most of the highest temperature in the land, above 43°C (110°F), occurs in July and August in Baja California and in the Sonoran and Khihuahuan Desert Centres. Out of the high mountain regions of Northeastern Mexico and the northerly part of the Mesa del Norte, the low temperature usually does not fall below 32°F (0°C).
The majority of Mexico does not have sufficient rainfall for at least part of the year. With the exception of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental and the Gulf Coast Plain, the area just south of the Tropic of Capricorn generally has less than 500 mm of rainfall per year and is considered to be either exotic deserts or exotic steppes.
A large part of Mexico in the south and south of the country has less than 1,000 mm of rain per year, mostly from May to August, and is considered a savannah or highlands savannah rain. The Chiapas Highlands and the Yucatán Peninsula have plenty of rainfall all year round, only the Gulf Coast Plain and the surrounding hills - from Tampico to the south to Villahermosa.