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The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam
With a length of 290 km, the Mariana Archipelago comprises 14 United States Commonwealth of the North Mariana Ilands ( "CNMI") and the U.S. Territory of Guam, as well as a number of off-shore banking institutions. Marianaas can be geographically grouped into two: the older arch of the south with Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan (& Marpi Bank), Farallon de Mendinilla and Aguijan and the younger vulcanic North Isles with Anatahan, Sarigan, Guguan, Alamagan, Pagan, Agrihan, Asuncion, Maug (with Supply Reef) and Farallon de Pajaros.
Shallow Forbidden Iceland, a raised fossilized body of corals on the Isle of Saipan. All of the Mariana islands in the south, which have a similar construction, are part of the Mariana arch system and are considered to be part of the Eocene to the early Miocene (15-20 Ma). Although the South islets are of vulcanic origins, they are almost all capped with raised limestones from old granite cliffs; these episodic raised calcareous interterraces form a shallow "layer cake" landscape with many caverns.
Northern Mariana Islands are part of the Mariana Arch, where the Pacific plaque is subduced under the Filipino plaque. From Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros, the volcanos are all strato volcanos (volcanoes of molten materials and refractory materials) created by the remelting of subduced materials. Lush reef corals growing at Stingray Shoals in the World Water Ranger, as seen by an submarine sleigh at a sea level of about 30 m. The Western Mariana Ridge (WMR) is a relic of a vulcanic arch that constitutes a row of sea mounts that lie 145 to 170 km westward and parallelly to the major islets.
It is of middle ages, younger than the south arch of the arch and older than the north arch of the isle. Abandonment of terrestrial sediment, recent volcano fly ash and rare man-made influences at the WMC are contributing to the almost optimum growing environment for corals. Mariana is the oldest and most advanced reef on the south.
In general, the corals are most widely spread on the west (leeward) sides of the isles. Most of the geological younger north islets are made of very young (4,000-year-old) vulcanic mud. There are many different types of extension around these islets. Generally there are few small and diverse groups of corals on the younger islets.
Only a few of the north shore and islets ( "Maug", "Guguan", "Stingray Shoals") have been surrounded by various groups of up to 60 different corals. Farallon de Pajaros, the most northerly of the Mariana archipelago, has recently seen a lot of vulcanic activities, and during the OES0307 ocean voyage vapor was seen from the craters.
Mankind' s story of the Mariana archipelago began around 2000 B.C., when Asians, who were the forefathers of the Chamorro peoples, came to the isles. Contacts with the West began in 1521, when Magellan reached Guam. In 1565 the Marianas were occupied by the Spaniards and a hundred years later, in 1668, a group of Spaniards came and called them Mariana of Austria, the wife of the Spaniard Phillip IV.
The rest of Chamorro were sent to Guam in 1720. In 1899 Germany purchased the archipelago from Spain (with the sole exemption of Guam, which was given to the United States after the Spanish-American War) with the intention of building coppa farms, during which time Germany also commissioned the gathering of rare birds' nibs for the import of hatter in Europe and Japan.
In the aftermath of World War I, the League of German Nations withdrew all properties abroad and granted Japan power of administration over the Marianas, with the exception of Guam. With an inflow of 40,000 migrants, mainly from Japan, the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, Japan set up a number of sugary and fishery land. In 1941, during the Second World War, Japan took Guam for a few short flights to Pearl Harbor and kept the rest of the island with forces or colonists on Guam, Rota, Tinian, Agrihan, Saipan, Anatahan and the heathen islands.
Following intensive battles, the United States reconquered Saipan, Tinian and Guam in June and July 1944. Japonese remnants who did not believe the conflict was over were evicted from Anatahan in 1951 and one last remnant was found in Guam in 1972. In 1975, the United Nations designated Mariana as a fiduciary area of the United States and the public chose to become the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), while Guam remained a state.
US administration rents over 16,000 acre of Tinian and 42,000 acre of Guam, mainly for warfare. Armed forces are an important revenue stream in Guam and to a smaller degree in Saipan and Tinian; the US is proposing to send 8,000 more soldiers to Guam after 2012.
Saipan's tourist and clothing industries, both of which have recently experienced financial setbacks, have also been major revenue streams. If you want a more detailed debate on the Mariana Archipelago's story, please go to www. mariana.com. Within the Mariana Archipelago there are many questions of resources managment. Most of the 244,000 inhabitants of the archipelago are living on four islands:
Rota, Tinian, Saipan and Guam, while small municipalities can be found on some of the north' island, such as Agrihan and Pagan Islets. Human phenomena are a big problem on the southerly inhabited island, and efforts are being made by those countries' respective states. The CNMI and Guam have twelve Marine Protection Areas (MPAs), many of which have been in place for the past ten years.
Major ships equipped with U.S. Navy Sealift Command Prepositioning Program equipment are anchored in the Garapan anchoring outside the port of Saipan on a routine basis. It is anchored on a flat shelves next to Saipan and a bench just off the coast. Also the Navy uses the Farallon de Mendinilla as a bombardment area.
Poorly mapped shores bordering this isle are a first-class angling area when boats are let into the area. Guam (Guahan in Chamorro) is the southernmost of the Mariana Archipelago and lies at 13 28' N, 144 47' E. It has a surface area of 541. Under the Guam Organic Act of 1950, the United States became an organised, non-incorporated area under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior (DOI).
Guam's story parallels the other Mariana archipelago up to the end of the 1800s. In 1898 Guam was transferred to the United States after the Spanish-American War, bought in 1899 for 20 million dollars and placed under the U.S. Navy's supervision. Used as a refuelling and transfer point, Guam was on the Pan American Airways China Clipper Rout between 1935 and World War II.
As of December 10, 1941, a troop of over 5,500 units from Japan arrived at five locations around Guam; the US defense forces comprised only 274 Navy, 153 Marines and 120 island forces with old war-arms. Guam's inhabitants were suffering under Japan's occupying forces and some 600 Chamorros were put to death.
On July 21, 1944, US troops arrived in Guam, and 7,000 Americans and 11,000 Japs died in the subsequent three-week fight that the US won. The search for items of equipment took many years after the war, and it was not until 1972 that the last of Guam's soldiers was found in a cavern.
Until 1945 the Isle was used as a commando station for the US West Pacific and in 1946 US navy regained it. 1949 President Truman signs the Guam Organic Act and the territory of Guam is inaugurated. Only in 1962 was the demand for a safety release for trips to Guam abolished.
There has been a strong emigration from the surrounding countries to Guam since then. Today about 37% of the inhabitants are Hamorros, 26% Filipinos, 11% other Asian countries and the other 26% a mix of Caucasus, Koreans and Japan. At some point before 1952, the invading South Pacific Brown Tree Serpent was inadvertently brought to Guam.
The city of Guam lies about 80 n.mi. and is part of the Mariana front arch to the south. This is the most southern of the volcanoes and benches, which form a row of volcano arches that stretch as far as Japan. Guam's oldest rock formation dates from the middle to later Eocene (48-33 Ma).
Guam Island's archipelago is unrivalled in that the south part of the archipelago is ruled by vulcanic formations, while the north part consists of raised calcareous corals, very similar to the geological formations of Rota, Tinian, Aguijan and Saipan. In the past, the northerly chalk plain was thickly wooded but is now felled without flowing through.
Many coves, gorges and gorges are located on the sides of this vulcanic area. A large part of this area is grassland area. Multi-beam datasets were obtained in 2003 and 2007; cartography was complete between 300 and 1000 metres around the islands with a cover of up to 2500 metres in some places.
Bathymmetric datas show canyons on the SW coastline, massive waste and complicated constructions on the N coastline and some strange hillsides on the NW and Sides. Also around the Santa Rosa Reef, which is situated just South of Guam, a restricted map was made. That brown tree snake in Guam.
And Guam remembers. Guam War: The most southerly of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota is about 60 km north-east of Guam and 90 km south-west of Tinian at 14 10' north and 145° 14' east long. 85.5 km², 17 km long and 8 km broad with a peak of 496 meters on the Manira Mountain.
The Sinapalo and Song Song Song are the two main groups on the isle. During World War II there were no fights in Rota, so much of the indigenous flora was preserved, while in Guam, Tinian and Saipan the flora was largely devastated during and after World War II. Rota's total Rota populace grew 43% from 2,295 in 1990 to 3,283 in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau) and has the most popu arion of the Chamorro people.
In 2003, multi-beam information was gathered at the Sasanhaya Marine Preserve by R/V AHI. AHI and Hi'ialakai both carried out mappings around Tinian in 2007. NOAA Office of Coast Survey staff also used the start to refresh the chart information in Rota Harbor. The continual bathhymetric cover was reached from approx. 350 to 1000 meters with a partially cover of up to 1900 meters. For reasons of schedule, only approx. 40% of the flat water around Rota was cartographical.
While the seabed westwards of Rota descends westwards over a number of NE-trendy steep slopes, to the northeast of Rota are smaller steep slopes, both E-W and NW-SE. Situated in the south part of CNMI, Aguijan Island (also known as Aguigan) is 8 km to the south western part of Tinian Island at 14 52' northern latitude, 145° 34' eastern latitude, and Tinian and Aguijan are the municipality of Tinian.
The small islet is only 4 km x 1 km and has an area of about 7.3 km². It is 57 metres high and is surrounded by rocks, so it is not inhabited and rarely used. This is also known as the Goat Isle because a wild goat populations that were later taken out to minimise foliage.
An adjacent Naftan Rock was used as a bomb site and non-exploded munitions remain in the surrounding area. Depth (> -300 m) multi-beam observations were gathered by the Hi'ialakai around Aguigan in 2007. Those datas show similar structure in southwest-northeast direction to the South-West.
In the Aguijan area no flat information was gathered for lack of materiality. Situated in the southerly part of CNMI at 15 degrees northern Latitude, 145 degrees 38'E, 4. 4 km southward of Saipan and 160 km northward of Guam. The municipality of Tinian and the island of Aguijan near by make up the municipality of Tinian. The Tatsumi Reef, a favourite angling area, is located three kilometres northeast of Tinian.
It has an area of 102 square kilometres and is 19. Mine on Tinian, where one of the nuclear weapons of World War II was charged to Hiroshima and Nagasaki for launching. Tinian was an important sugar cane cultivation and production centre under Japan's auspices between the First and Second World Wars until the Second World Wars.
In mid-1944, the US Armed Services conquered the entire country and then the longest take-off and landing strips in the history of the country were made. Nearly two-tirds of Tinian - over 16,000 acre - is currently rented to the U.S. Army and the Navy provides regular trainings. Tinian's cafeteria was opened in 1997, and an important income stream on the islands are tourist who come from Saipan on daily excursions by plane or canoe.
AHI in the port of Tinian during the MARAMP-Kreuzfahrt 2007. In 2003 and 2007 multi-beam datasets were gathered around Tinian and in 2001 and 2003 visual validations. Figures show erosion canals and massive losses in the eastern and western parts of the islands, some areas with possible deeper (> 50 m) reefs and two mountain ranges between Saipan and Tinian.
Situated in the south of CNMI at 15 12' NB, 145 45' EL, 4. 4 km N of Tinian Islan. It is about 20 km long and 9 km broad with an area of 122 square km. Out of the eight municipalities on Saeipan, Garapan and Chalan Kanoa are the main centres of populations.
Since the arrival of the Chamorro about four hundred years ago, Saipan has been continually inhabited and was under the control of Spain and Germany until 1914. The US army ended up in Saipan in the summers of 1944 with a massive invading power and at the same time assaulted a neighboring Japonese navy. In Saipan violent fights were waged with severe casualties on both sides.
Between 1949 and 1962, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) completed the north half of Saipan. In 2003 and 2007, local Saipan Multibeam and in 2001 and 2003 only restricted visual information was used. The US Navy also commissioned NOAA in 2004 to capture comprehensive anchor segment videodata.
Virtually uninterrupted multi-beam cover is possible from 20 to over 500 metres in depth, with some dates up to 2000 metres underwater. Celebrity U-Boat Gorges eastwards of Saipan range from ~100m U-Boat Helfrand to ~3000m over a distance of more than 20 km.
There are two large off-shore benches on the west side of Saipan on the Garapan Anchorage with an area of over 50 km², which varies at depths of 20-100 metres and are among the coral-richest areas in CNMI. The Marpi Bench is a steeply sloping, shallow covered dive bench about 28 km from Saipan, 15 26' northern breadth, 145 52' eastern length, 9 km long and 4 km broad, situated in a northeastern to southwestern orientation similar to the Tatsumi Reef, which is situated just South of Tinian.
The Marpi Bank was measured with multi-beam sonar on the R/V AHI and the NOAA vessel Hi'ialakai in 2003 and 2007. MARAMP Crusade 2007 - MARAMP Isle. Anyahan is a small volcano 120 km from Saipan. It' 4 square kilometers. It's on the 16th parallel. 67 degrees C and its maximal height is 788 m. On many of the northerly isles, sporadically small man inhabited areas have developed.
The Japanese did not believe that the Second World War ended until 1951, when the few who survived were taken off the isle. Because of its effects on the endangered Mariana bats, this is particularly important. A programme to eradicate ungulates was launched in 2002, but was disrupted by the 2003 volcano outbreaks.
All 266 inhabitants of the northern Marianas of Anatahan, Alamagan and Agrihan were evicted to Saipan in 1990 when the Anatahan outbreak was imminent. The access to the isle is strongly restricted by this igneous action. In September 2003, marine studies showed that most of the reef community was coated with volcanoes.
In 2007, only a small amount of multi-beam information was gathered during the salvage of a singular anchored oceanographical tool. However several earlier university and state cruise ships have gathered multi-beam information around Anatahan. NOAA CRED collects information in colour, while the previously gathered multi-beam records are displayed in grey.
Sariigan is a 16° 42'N wide vulcanic islet, 145 46'E long, about 175 km northern of Saipan, 20 km southern of Zealandia Bank and 42 km northern of Anatahan Islan. Archeological research by Georg Fritz, the first steward of the Marian colony in Germany, found ceramics and pale stone on the Isle of Sarigan, a symbolic of the Chamorro people.
From 1909 to 1912, the Geman government rented eight inhabited archipelagos, among them Sarigan, in order to use the birds' population for the trading of cap feathers in Japan and Europe. There were 14 Carolingian and Japonese catcher at one point on Sarigan, but due to the small number of birds, all but two were taken out. It has been selected as a site for the resettlement of indigenous birds threatened by the bay snakes on Guam and other South islets.
Near the coast there are coco palms, and the caldera can be seen at the top of the isle. A northerly current overtook the edge of the craters on the northerly and north-western sides. During 2007, multi-beam datasets were gathered around Sarigan at -10 and -1900 depth. There is a small shelves 2 km eastward of the islet with two plattforms - one at 40-50 metres and one at 130-140 metres below. Signs of wastefulness and degradation can be seen around the islet with a small subsidiary characteristic, possibly another conical, on the south side of the islet.
Guguan is a resting volcano at 17° 19' N and 145° 50' N, about 185 km N of Saipan. Its length is 3 km long and 2 km broad with an area of about 4 square km and a maximal height of 287 m. The Ger-man manager Georg Fritz found no archeological records of the Chamorro occupancy on the northerly part of the Guguan isle.
From 1909 to 1912, the Geman government rented eight inhabited island, among them Guguan, to use the birds for the trading in cap-feathers. The Guguan is a northern Mariana reserve and was proclaimed a nature reserve in 1980 by the constitution of the marina. MARAMP Island - MARAMP Crossing 2007.
The Guguan has an extinct vulcano in the southern part, a squid with a post-caldera conical and a northerly volcanic vent with a pierced peak craters feeding western creeks. Only known eruptions took place between 1882 and 1884 and generated the north volcanic and volcanic currents that arrived on the coastline.
In 2007, multi-beam Sonardata was gathered around Guguan at a depth of 20 to 800 metres on all sides and almost 2000 metres on the east side. Multi-beam bathymetric images show two racks 2 km off the coast around the south of the islands - one at a depth of 25 to 50 metres and the second at 80 to 120 metres.
Only fifteen kilometres to the south eastern part of Sarigan, scarce multi-beam information points to a similar pattern to that of eastern Sarigan. Allamagan is an open volcano at 17° 36' northern breadth, 145 50' eastern length, about 185 km northern of Saipan. Home on Alamagan Iceland - MARAMP Riverboat Trip 2007.
All 266 inhabitants of the North Marianas of Anatahan, Alamagan and Agrihan were evicted to Saipan in 1990 when the Anatahan outbreak was imminent. There are also cattle, swine and caprines on the isle. It is the only one of the North' Isles that is home to an extinct birdspecies, the Nightingale Warbler, which also had an estimate of 30 Mariana megapods in 1995.
The Alamagan has a 350 metre drop peak craters to the south. In 2007, multi-beam solar radiation was gathered around Alamagan in waters between 20 and 1000 metres on all sides and up to over 2000 metres on the south. MULTIBLAM datasets show a 3 km long small shelves starting from the south-east bank of the islands with a depth of 25 to 100 metres. There is comprehensive information on all sides of the isle about waste.
The Pagan is an energetic volcano at 18° 07' northern latitude, 145° 48' eastern length, about 310 km northern of Saipan. It is 2 km and a maximal height of 570 m. It is the fourth biggest of the CNMI-isles. Pagan Island's commandant capitulated almost simultaneously with the entire capitulation of Japan at the beginning of September 1945.
Fifty-three inhabitants were displaced to Pagan in 1981 following a large volcano eruption. ÿ The inhabitants have requested the repatriation, but the authorities are cautious because of the ongoing vulcanic threaten. At the MARAMP 2007 science tour there were five seasons inhabitants on the isle. The goat population is also widespread on the isle, but since much of the farmland was occupied by the 1981 eruptions, most of the stock was starving at that age.
In the north part of the isle there is a flat Brackwassersee and remains of a deciduous mix wood (Aglaia-Elaeocarpus). One of the biggest and most prolific volcanos of Mariana, Pagan consists of two volcanos linked by a small isthmus. Mt Pagan, the northerly vulcano, has a peak altitude of 570 metres and a 7 km craters.
Following the outbreak in 1981, vulcanic activities persisted until 1994. 3-D visualization of Pagan Iceland. In 2007, multi-beam solar radiation was gathered around Pagan in waters between 20 and 1900 metres deep on all sides and up to over 2500 metres on the east side. Multi-beam datasets show a 2.8 x 3 km long shelves starting from the south bank of the isle.
There is a small dyke compound on the east side of the islands, encircled by a small shelves at 18-300 metres high. All other areas have precipitous hillsides up to 700 metres or lower with signs of waste and degradation, especially on the northern and southern bloc.
Agrihan ( "agrigan" or "grigan") is a resting volcano at 18° 46' northern breadth, 145 40' eastern length, about 390 km northern of Saipan. After Agrihan was the site of the Chamorro's last state against the Spanish, all Chamorro were moved to Guam. Agrihan was one of the colonial era in Germany, rented between 1909 and 1912 to collect birds' nibs for trading in hats in Europe and Japan.
The inhabitants were displaced in 1917, the only historical outburst. During the Anatahan outbreak in 1990, all 266 inhabitants of the northern Marianas of Anatahan, Alamagan and Agrihan were displaced to Saipan. In 2007, multi-beam solar radiation was gathered around Agrihan at a depth of up to 1700 metres on all sides.
Multiple-beam datasets show a 1 km flat shelves at the southwestern edge of the islands in waters up to 50 m deep. The steeply sloping slopes can be seen and there is comprehensive information about waste fulness and soil degradation on all sides of the isle. Asunción is a resting volcano at 19° 41' northern latitude, 145° 14' eastern length, about 490 km northern of Saipan.
Asunción has the largest virgin rainforest of the North Island, with a bushy, blended deciduous wood overgrown with Terminalia spp. 400 of the endangered fruiting shamrocks and less than 25 micronesic megapods, a pigeon-sized ground birds on Asunción, which is a protected area of the North Mariana Island and was designated a protected area in the early 1980s by the constitution of the Mariana people.
Asunción is the sharpest of the North' volcanos and is characterized by landslides and marine crags. In 2007, multi-beam solar radiation was gathered around Agrihan at a depth of up to 1100 metres on all sides. Multiple-beam datasets show a 2.5 km flat shelves at the southwestern edge of the isle with two patios at 15-30 meters and at 95-140 meters. The only area with precipices on all sides of the isle and gorges and indications of massive waste and degradation is the south.
Multi-beam deep water dataset from Maug caldera. The Maug (Guam written backwards) is a singular texture on the Marianaas, comprising three small separated islets ( "Higashi-shima" - East Island, "Kita-shima" - Northern Island and "Nishi-shima" - West Island) and a dipped calendera. Situated at 20° 2' N, 145 13' D, about 530 km from Saipan.
On the outside, the three islets have a 3.3 km diametre, while the dipped calendar has a diametre of about 2.2 km. There are three small island with a surface of 2,1 square km and a height of 227 m. The Maug-Craters - MARAMP-Cruise 2007.
Most of the three sheer isles are covered with low brush, gras and a few palms. The Maug is a Northern Mariana Conservation Area and was designated a nature reserve in the early 1980s by the Mariana Constitution; it is free of game. Mariana Megapod, a pigeon-sized animal of the ground, can be found on all three isles with an estimate of 150 birds since 1998.
Underwater the coral of Maug is one of the wealthiest of the northern Mariana Islands. In 2007, multi-beam Sonardata were gathered in and around Maug at a depth of up to 2000 metres on all sides and in some cases up to 3000 metres. MULTIBLAM datasets show a tip with a depth of up to 22 meters in the middle of the calderas and over 225 meters below the ground.
Some of the most interesting information gathered during MARAMP 2007 is the deep multi-beam information around the isle. It is an operating U-boat Vulcano at 20 09' northern latitude, 145 6' eastern length, about 547 km northern of Saipan. Situated about 10 km northeast of Maug Iceland, it is connected to Maug by a ridge at a total of about 1600 metres deep. Its lowest point is 7.9 metres, as defined by the multi-beam map carried out in 2007.
In 2007, multi-beam Sonardata was gathered at all sides at water levels of up to 2000 metres, except on the eastern side, where previously gathered multi-beam information existed. Multi-beam measurements show a caldera-like peak with a 320 metre diametre at 7.9 to approx. 30 metres deep with precipitous slopes on all sides.
Massively wasted and eroded can only be observed on the northerly submarine face of Supply Reef. In the early 1980s Farallon de Pajaros was designated a nature reserve by the constitution of Mariana. There are no fruiting bat or Mariana megapoda, a woodland ground avocet, on the isle. The Farallon de Pajaros has broken out at least 16 outbreaks since 1864, but surveillance was tricky because of the island's shelter.
In 2007, multi-beam solar radiation was gathered around Farallon de Pajaros in waters of at least 1000 metres deep on all sides. MULTIBLAM datasets show a minute 300 metre broad shelving with a depth of 20-30 metres on the SE side of the isle and a much bigger one (1.4 x 1.4 km) with a depth between 65 and 250 metres on the north-eastern side of the isle.
Cliffs are visible on all sides of the islands, with little sign of waste or degradation. The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands has a total of 2000 inhabitants. Lonely remnants of the "Island of the Dead. Fauna and flora at risk; Mariana fruit bat (Pteropus Marianus Marianne Mariannus):
Re-classification of endangered to be endangered in the territory of Guam and enumeration as endangered in the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federal Register, 2005, Vol. 70, No. Forest-bird and bat populations on Sarigan, Mariana Islands. Study Spezialstudie North Field Historic District, Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Commonwealth coral reef ecosystems of the Northern Mariana Islands in the state of the coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific freely associated states: Estimates of bats (Pteropus mariannus) on the Mariana Islands.