" During the Second World War it was badly affected, but by the mid 1950s it had been rebuilt, and in the second half of the twentieth centuries it was enjoying a well-developed business and culture scene. Ukraine's sovereignty from the Soviet Union in 1991 renews Kiev's position as a significant EU city.
Situated on the Dnieper Rivers, directly below its tributary with the Desna and 951 km from its estuary in the Black Sea. It was originally situated on the high and cliffy right (western) shore, which climbs over the impressive cliffs of the Batyyeva Hill, 100 meters above the average height of the stream.
The steep and woody shore, dominated by the gold cupolas and turrets of church and belfry houses and skyscrapers, makes the town an appealing and impressing view from all over Dnieper. Kiev has been extending over the broad, low and shallow river meadows on the east shore since the Second World War.
Kyiv has a temperate climate. Its boundary covers an area of 780 sq km on both sides of the Dnieper. Kiev's main centre lies in the area of the old upper town, which crowns the high cliffs of Dnieper. Inside there is a magnificent fresco and mosaic decoration with the grave of Jaroslaw I, the Great Duke of Kiev, under whose rule the church was made.
Known as Khreshchatyk, the center's main thoroughfare lies at the foot of a small river basin, the sides of which are partially covered with terrace garden surrounded by high, contemporary offices and residential houses. This was the center of the Maidan (also known as Euromaidan ) protests that resulted in the deposition of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014.
One of the most important edifices on the road is that of the municipal government, where members of parliament are held. Among the many sculptures in the center of Kiev are those that remind of the Cossack guide Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Ukranian writer Taras Shevchenko. To the north of the old town lies the former trade and Jew district Podil with its square road design and the old trade stock market, the House of Treaties dating from 1817.
Likewise to the east of the old center is the harbour. The Pecherskyy region lies to the southern side of the city center, along the banks of the Rivers. Many of the most important Ukraine governement palaces are located in this part of the city, among them the 1936-39 dome building, which contains the Supreme Council and the 10-storey building with the Cabinet of Ministers.
In the vicinity is the Mariinsky Palace, attractively designed and constructed for Tsarina Elisabeth in 1747-55, rebuilt in 1870 and used today for reception. Another convent, Vydubytsky from the eleventh centuries, is located southwards of the lava; it was also badly destroyed during the Second World War, but was later restored.
Along the cliffy river bank, opposite the Upper Town and the Pecherskyy quarter, an attractive garden with a view of the Dnieper has been created. One of the most distinctive characteristics of the town is its view of the town. In 988, the Kiev tribe was baptised in large numbers.
There is also the tomb of General Nikolay Vatutin, commandant of the Soviets who freed Kiev in 1943, and a roundabout that marks the alleged tomb of the early Varangian (Viking) chieftain Askold. Expansive factory and neighbourhood outskirts extend around these key Kiev boroughs.
Quarter entities, the so-called micro-regions, comprise groups of multi-family houses with 2,500 to 5,000 inhabitants, provision of essential utilities, shopping, a healthcare center, cinemas and elementary schools. One characteristic of the town' s evolution since the Second World War has been its rapidly spreading urban ization on the lower east banks of the Dnieper River, which had previously been almost uninhabited.
There is a railroad viaduct connecting the river's banks with the Kiev mainland and an impressive Ye River. This includes the large botanic garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the smaller botanic garden of the Ukraine Academy of Sciences (founded in the middle of the 19th century). At the edge of town there are several wooded areas which are often used for relaxation.
Kiev is an attractively situated downtown location with its contrasting landscape and panoramic view of the Dnieper, the rich ness of green in and around the town, and the many historic and beautiful monuments. Kiev, as the Ukrainian capitol, has important bureaucratic responsibilities, with significant jobs in the bureaus of the Ministry of Economics.
It is also an important industry center with a broad spectrum of manufacturers. Fabrics are located in all parts of the town, with large concentration in the western part of the town center and on the eastern banks of the Dnieper. The machine industry, which is centred on metals from the Dnieper Bend steelworks and the Donets Basin (Donbas) coal-mining area, is of great importance and involves the manufacture of sophisticated machines and precise tooling and instrumentation.
The Kiev facilities manufacture systems for chemicals facilities, such as conveyors for volcanic caoutchouc, linoleum and fertiliser mills, and also manufacture metals cutters. A further important branch is the chemicals business, which produces resins, fertilisers, plastics and man-made fibers, most recently at the Darnytsya viscose facility on the banks of the river on the lhs.
Kyiv is also a large center of publishers. The many companies are powered by CNG from Dashava in West Ukraine and by the Kiev hydropower plant on Dnieper. Finished in 1968, this facility is located in Vyshhorod, directly above the town. The Trypillya heat plant, which is even more efficient, is located southeast of Kiev.
Transport for industry and the town as a whole is guaranteed by a good transport infrastructure. Motorways and all-weather highways connect Kiev with Moscow in Russia, with Kharkov and the Donets Basin in East Ukraine, with South Ukraine and the Odessa harbour, as well as with West Ukraine and Poland.
Dnjepr's navigation was enhanced by a number of weirs and dams. The Boryspil Airport offers a wide range of services, from live air services to many Ukranian destinations and large European, Asian and North American destinations. Kiev itself has an excellent underground, railway, coach, tram and trolley transport system.
It is well equipped with healthcare institutions, such as general and specialised clinics and municipal clinics that serve the housing areas. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine operates a number of research institutions, which also maintain a large lending institution. Kyiv is known for its medicinal and kybernetic research.
Kiev's old traditions as a culture center are still very much present today. It has several theaters, in particular the Taras Shevchenko National Opera of Ukraine. Kyiv has a large number of movie theaters, and movies are made in a nearby one. Regularly, the National Academy of Music of Ukraine (Tchaikovsky Conservatory) and the National Palace of Art hold regular concert performances.
Among the city's many famous museum are the National Historical Museum, the Museum of Russian Art and the National Art Museum of Ukraine. Kyiv has good amenities for sport and relaxation. One of the biggest of the numerous arenas is the Olympic Stadium, which houses the Dynamo Kiev team, and the Palace of Sport.
The Vyshhorod hydroelectric power station and the Trukhaniv island in Dnjepr opposite the center of the town, where there is a sandy area and a center for nautical activities, are both ideal for practicing nautical activities. On the edge of the town there are spas, sanatoria and children's summer camp. Kyiv has a long, wealthy and often turbulent past.
Neolithic settlements that were engaged in farming and cattle breeding - not least the Trypillya civilization of the middle of the 5th to third millennia BC - already existed on the grounds of Kiev around 3000 BC. Kiev's traditional year of foundation is 482 years old, and in 1982 the 1,500th birthday of the founding took place. Archeological records indicate, however, that the site was established in the sixth or seventh centuries.
Kiev was created by three brethren, Kyi (Kiy), Shchek and Choryv (Khoriv), leader of the Polyanic Eastern Slavic people, according to the chronicles from the twelfth centuries, the Povest vanremennykh let ("History of Past Years", also known as the Russian primary chronicle). Everyone built his own village on a hillside, and these villages became the city of Kiev, called after the oldest friar Kyi; a small brook near by was called after her younger sibling Lybed (Lebid).
Even though the history of chronicles is a legend, there are still traces of Kiev in the works of scholars of Byzantine, Hebrew and Arabic history and geography. In the middle of the 9th centrury the Varangers (Vikings) conquered Kiev, and as in Novgorod in the northern part a Slavic-Warangian ruler élite evolved. Kiev gained importance with its good defence position on the high cliffs and as the center of a wealthy farming region and a group of early Slav cities.
Around 882 Oleg (Oleh), the sovereign of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and made it his capitol, the center of the first East Slavic state, Kiev Rus. This city thrived, mainly through trading along the Dnieper to the southern Byzantine Empire and to the northern part via transports to the Baltic Sea flows - the so-called "road from the Varangians to the Greeks" or "waterway".
Christianity was introduced in Kiev in 988 and strengthened its importance as a Russian center of spirituality. Kiev's St. Sophia Church, parts of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (cave monastery) and the remains of the Golden Gate are still today evidence of Kiev's heyday.
As one of the most important European towns, Kiev entered into close ties with the Byzantine Empire, England, France, Sweden and other states. However, throughout the Kiev Rus era, the town fought a series of battles against the nominadic tribes that lived in the southern steppes: the Khazars, the Petschenegs and the Polovtsians (Kipchak or Kuman).
This conflict debilitated the town, but even greater damage was caused by the never-ending, intricate internal battles of the principalities into which Rus was split. Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky of Rostov-Suzdal conquered and plundered Kiev in 1169. Thus the town' s might had diminished at the end of the twelfth centuries, and in the following centuries it could not withstand the ascending and mighty Mongols.
A Mongolian military under Batu, grandchild of Genghis Khan, marched into Rus in 1238 and, after plundering the cities in the centre of Rus, laid siege to and raided Kiev in 1240. A large part of the town has been devastated and most of the inhabitants slaughtered. Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, a monk and traveller of Francis, six years later told of only 200 preserved homes in Kiev.
What remained of Kiev and its surroundings came under the rule of the mighty and growing Lithuanian granduchy in the fourteenth centuries, which took it in 1362. Long after that, Kiev had only a small role as a fort and small supermarket on the loosely delineated border between Lithuania and the Crimean plains Tatars.
In 1516, Great Dukes Sigismund I. Kiev gave Kiev a statute of independence and thus strongly stimulated it. The Lublin Union between Lithuania and Poland transferred Kiev and the Ukranian estates to Poland in 1569. Kyiv became one of the centers of orthodox resistance against the extension of the power of the Polish Holy Church, led by the energetic proselytisation of the Jesuits.
As in other cities in Ukraine, a Ukranian brotherhood was formed in Kiev in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to promote this resistance and promote Ukranian political will. In Kiev, Peter Mogila (Petro Mohyla), an important theoretician and metropologist from 1633 to 1646, set up the Collegium (later the Kiev Mohyla Academy) as an important Orthodox educational center in the Eastern European area.
Also in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there was increased turmoil among the Zaporozhian Cossacks of the Dnieper River down from Kiev and a constantly rising battle between them and the Pole. Bohdan Chmelnytsky, who came to Kiev in 1649 with the support of the Crimean Tatars and his rebellious Cossacks, triumphed.
In 1654 Khmelnytsky and the Cossacks sign ed the Pereyaslav Agreement, essentially by subjugating Ukraine to Moscow, followed by a long and confusing spell of struggle and devastation, which led to the peace of Andrusovo in 1667, confirming the sovereignty and defence of Moscow over the so-called left bank or part of Ukraine east of the Dnjeper and Kiev (actually western of the river), while Poland confirms the right bank or westward Ukraine.
By 1686, the Treaty of Perpetual Peace between Poland and Russia affirmed Russia's domination of Kiev, the only Moscow branch on the right banks of the Dnepr River. 1793 the Second Partition of Poland under the Soviet emperor Catherine II (the Great) introduced the Rights of Ukraine onto the territory of the Soviet Empire, and Kiev, supported by the abolishment of customs borders between Russia and Ukraine in 1754, began to gain importance commercially.
Catherine' s rule was characterized by the abolishment of the old administration system and the office of the Cossack chieftain and the splitting of Ukraine into new districts, one of which became Kiev. Kiev later became the center of a governor-generalhip comprising three governors.
During the first half of the nineteenth centuries, Kiev became a focal point of Ukraine's domesticism, although heavy harassment by the Tsar's regime compelled the move to relocate its main operations to Lviv in the Austrian-led Ukraine. Kiev, as well as the towns of Russia, had secretly revolutionary actions (beginning with the Dekembrists at the beginning of the nineteenth century) that peaked in a string of strike and demonstration that led to the 1905 Revolution in Russia.
A major part in this revolution was played by Kiev University graduates (now Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), founded in 1834. The increasing importance of Ukraine's economy and in particular the increasing exports of cereals led to further economical developments in Kiev in the nineteenth cenury.
At the end of the 1860s, Kiev was linked to both Moscow and the Black Sea harbour of Odessa by railway, which further strengthened its position as an industrial, commercial and administrative center. When World War I broke out, the town had a total of 350,000 inhabitants. When the Russian Revolution of 1917 broke out, a Revolutionary Assembly, the Central Rada ("Council"), was set up on the instigation of the Society of Ukrainian Progressives and other creative, vocational and civic organizations.
The Central Rada in January 1918 declared an independant Ukraine state with Kiev as its main city. Slight insurrections by pro-Soviet Bolshevik operatives, mainly focused on the arsenal plants, were repressed, but Soviets under the leadership of Mikhail Muravev came to their rescue and invaded Kiev on February 9, 1918.
Occupation forces brutally retaliated against many Ukrainians in the town. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 3 March 1918, which closed the First World War enmities between the new USSR administration and the central powers, the USSR authorities recognised Ukraine's sovereignty. They immediately invaded the land and formed a Ukranian marionette in Kiev, but broke down with Germany's capitulation to the Allies in November 1918 and the ensuing departure of them.
In Kiev, once again under the guidance of Symon Petlyura, an independant Ukraine was proclaimed, but its brief and turbulent past was a succession of battles between nationalistic, anti-Bolshevik (white) and soviet (red) powers. Kiev was briefly invaded by the White Army under General Anton Ivanovich Denikin in November 1919, before eventually being invaded by the Red Army.
However, the town was still refused freedom when the Russian-Polish war broke out in the early 1920s. The Poles conquered Kiev in May 1920, but were expelled in a counter-attack. Kiev's position as the center of the Ukranian socialists prompted the USSR to move the capitol of the new Ukranian Socialist Republic of the USSR (Ukrainian USSR Republic from 1937) to Kharkov, and it was not until 1934 that Kiev regained its legal rank as a nation's largest state.
From 1928 to the Second World War, during the five-year period of the Soviets, new machinery, electronics and chemicals industry were born. In 1941, the Germans invaded the town again, bringing heavy pain and devastation. Following a violent 80-day fight, the Germans joined them on 19 September 1941. 1943 the advance army of the Soviets forced the Dnieper and took Kiev on 6 November after intense battles.
Even the town itself had endured great devastation, with more than 40 per cent of its premises and about 800 of its industries destroyed. Kiev's part in the conflict was later honored by the Soviets with the Lenin Order, the titles Hero Cities, and the Gold Star medals. Kyiv grew further and strengthened its industry in the mid and end of the twentieth centuries.
From 25 to 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl NPP, some 104 kilometres northerly of Kiev, experienced the most severe catastrophe in the entire annals of atomic energy production. At this point the winds had changed and the inhabitants of Kiev were subjected to a dangerous level of irradiation. While Kiev as an intergovernmental unity was largely overshadowed by Moscow during the soviet era, the founding of an autonomous Ukraine brought Kiev back onto the global scene.
Kyiv became the center of the ideological struggle between the pro-European Ukraine and Russian Eastern states. Ten thousand people took to the roads of the capitol to demonstrate against rampant cheating and voting in the November 2004 elections, in which Russia-backed Viktor Yanukovych beat the pro-Western Viktor Yushchenko. Yushchenko won the ensuing repeat, and the Ukrainian Supreme Court tilted the results.
Yanukovych, who replaced Yushchenko as Yushchenko's current chairman, withdrew from a proposed EU membership treaty in the 11th period of 2013-14. The pro-EU protesters established a campsite in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") and squatted town halls. Kiev's inner cities became a battleground, and the Maidan building was burned by gasoline shells.
Yanukovych, who was left by his fellow politicians and escaped under threats of deposing him, escaped to Russia, and the demonstrators known as the Euromaidan move led to a pro-Western state.