Johnston AtollPrince Johnston's Atoll
The Johnston Island Air Force Base
The Johnston Island Air Force is a former US air force air force station on the Johnston Atoll in the Minor Australian Territory, in the Pacific Ocean several hundred kilometres south-west of Hawaii. The airport was temporarily run as Johnston Atoll Airport until it was closed in 2005. The Johnston Atoll was declared a Marine and Air Space Reserve in February 1941.
Including U.S. Navy and Marine forces in Johnston: Including U.S. Navy and Marine forces in Johnston: The following articles contain publicly available materials from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
Johannesston Atoll - United States Nuclear Forces
The U.S. Army Chemicals Activity Pacific withdrew to Johnston Island on July 31, 2001. Disabling the force meant the end of 30 years of stockpiling and dealing with chemicals and participation in the annihilation of these arms since 1990. It was Johnston Island, 825 leagues south-west of Hawaii, the only place where the troops were in charge of the stockpiling, safety and transportation of the lethal chemicals.
Only 2½ long Only 2Â long and half a nautical metropolitan area, the Isle was home to a army patrol and a chemistry enterprise, along with a headquarter. All soldiers stationed on the Isle during the 30 years were specially trained in the management of chemistry and CWAs.
It protected and dumped lethal sarine and VX neurotoxins and supported the Johnston Atoll Chemicals Disposal System, a civil contractor group tasked with destroying the chemicals. Thousands of tonnes of nerve and bladder fluid were also damaged. Its last supply of chemicals was annihilated in November 2000.
Johnston Island on 17 August 2001, but some DOD contracted civilists will stay. Johnston Atoll continues to dismantle the Johnston Atoll Chemicals Disposal System and disposes of alternative dangerous by-products. Situated 717 sea leagues SW of Oahu and 450 nm SW of the French frigate shoals on the northwestern Hawaii islands, it is one of the most insulated antolls in the worid.
Located on the heart of an old volcano which is now covered by a lime stone crest from 70 million years of sedimentary rockfall. Today, the Johnston Atoll is a wide, flat deck of about 50 sq. m. with a peripheral cliff that only appears in the north-west.
Atoll is made up of four reef islands: North and East Iceland. Johnston Iceland is the biggest of the two Icelandic archipelagos, with just over 625 acre, and is the basis for all operational and managerial activity, which includes all staff and social services. The Johnston and Sand Isles are naturally occurring islets that have been extended by excavation; North and East Isles (Akau and Hikina) are artificial ones made up of excavators.
Johnston Atoll's four small islets are home to over 200 different types of sea life, 32 different types of corals and 20 different indigenous and migrant birdlife. It employs some 960 civil and 250 army people. Johnston Atoll is supporting the US Army's programme for the stockpiling and disposal of CWW.
The Atoll is an unregistered U.S. property jointly operated by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (formerly Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA)) and the U.S. Department of the Interior's Department of Wildlife and Wildlife Service as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System.
The Johnston Atoll has also been used by the army since the mid-1930s and served as a refuelling point for airplanes and subs during the Second World War and as a basis for air bridge missions during the Korean War. The Johnston Atoll is a basic service facility mainly provided by subcontractors.
Besides basic assistance for the U.S. Army's chemicals extermination, DSWA also provides basic assistance to the Army-Air Force Exchange Office, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Office and various other contractor companies that provide assistance for a wide array of off-grid missions. The Kalama region offers a wide array of facilities to sustain the vitality and vitality of the islands, including freshwater and electricity generation, shelter, meals, fire safety, criminal justice, hospital healthcare and leisure time.
Atoll was accidently spotted on September 2, 1796 by Captain Joseph Pierpont of the US brig Sally. In 1797 he issued a report in several US papers about the earthing of his vessel in which he gave an exact location and mentioned the two primal isles ( "Johnston" and "Sand") and the imperfect islet.
Lieutenant William Smith of the HMS Cornwallis called the bigger isle after his ship's commander Charles J. Johnston, after he had briefly seen it on 14 December 1807. Johnston and the Sand Islands had Guillaume for several years before the surgery was discontinued at the end of 1800. The atoll was occupied by both the Kingdom of Hawaii and the United States in the latter part of the 1800'.
Franklin D. Roosevelt placed the atoll under the Navy in 1934 by order of the Executive 6935, maintaining the former rules for the expulsion and refugee shelter. Johnston Atoll was taken over and administered by the U.S. Navy in 1934. While the atoll was fired upon by Japan navies just after the Pearl Harbor assault, the battle soon moved westward and the part of the spacecraft moved from an outskirt to an airplane and a subsub.
In 1948 it was handed over to the air force again. A number of atomic testing in the later 1950s and early 1960s attracted new interest and interest to the Johnston Atoll. In 1964 a number of dredging and filling operations were concluded, increasing the initial Johnston Island from 46 acre to 625 acre, increasing Sand Island from 10 to 22 acre and adding two artificial islets, North (Akau) and East (Hikina) from 25 and 18acre.
By 1962, the Air Force maintained operative command of Johnston Atoll, with the sole exemption of four in 1958, when Joint Task Force 7 had operative command. Between 1962 and 1963, Joint Task Force 8 and the Atomic Energy Commission had joint operative command over Johnston Atoll to conduct high-altitude atomic tests.
The Joint Task Group 8 maintained operative command of Johnston Atoll from 1963 to 1970, when the Limited Test Ban Treaty came into effect and Johnston Atoll described it as the main testing site oversee. Johnston Atoll was reassigned to the Air Forces in 1970. In July 1973, the Deputy Secretary of Defense of the Defence of the German Nuclear Agency (DSWA) handed over to Johnston Atoll the responsibilities for hosting and managing the team.
The 1963 Safeguard C regulation on the Treaty on the Limited Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (and the ensuing NPTs ), commissioned by Congress, provided the foundation for the maintenance of the Johnston Atoll as a test facility if the re-launch of the atmosphere's atomic tests was to be considered vital to our domestic safety. The Congress financed the Johnston Atoll Safeguard C operation in November 1993 and identified the operation as the stockpiling and annihilation of CWW.
Johnston Atoll (JA) was assigned responsibility for managing the Air Force Air Force host bases by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in 1999. Hickam Air Force Base's fifteenth contract squadron will manage the Johnston Atoll contract. JACADS is operated by the US Army on the Atoll as a rental entity of Air Force Wing Air Force Station at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii.
DTRA, under the leadership of the Ministry of Defence at the moment of the hand-over, will remain in charge of the completion of the atoll' s planned plan for the clean-up of the atoll, with the aim of reaching a safer standard for people and the enviroment. This atoll was polluted with high levels of plutonium by two abandoned rocket boots during the 1962 tests for atomic warfare.
Enewetak Atoll, also in the Pacific, was remediated at 60 pCi/g for farmland and 40 pCi/g for housing areas. From 1964 a number of large scale open-air bioassay trials were carried out in Lee of the Johnston Atoll. US bio-weapons strategical testing concerned a number of vessels located around the Johnston Atoll against the wind from a number of cargo boats carrying test persons of Rhône monkeys who had been subjected to the funds released by airplanes.
Since 1971, Johnston Island has been storing chemicals. Johnston Island's weapon base includes missiles, bullets, landmines, mortars and barrels containing both nerves and mustards. Johnston Atoll's storage facilities for ammunition are located at four sites. In 1971, the army rented 41 acre to stockpiles of chemicals formerly kept in Okinawa, which were moved to the Okinawa atoll during Operation Red Hat in 1971.
The Luftwaffe relocated Agent Orange shares to Johnston Atoll in 1972[these shares were cancelled in 1977]. The Johnston Atoll was handed over from the Federal Republic of Germany in November 1990 for disposal in Operation Steel Box. The Solomon Islands imported chemicals in 1991.
JACADS stockpiled about 6.6% of the entire US stock before extermination began in 1990. The Army began to plan the Johnston Atoll Agent Chemicals Disposal System (JACADS) in 1981. This is the world's first large-scale plant for the disposal of chemicals. After the characterisation of buildings and plants was completed, JACADS started the OVT tests in June 1990.
The OVT was finished in March 1993 after it was proven that the combustion technique for inverted installation is reliable and that the operation of JACADS meets all environment related requirements. OVT allowed the army to obtain crucial insights into the elements that ensure a secure and efficient extinction ratio for all ammunition and agents categories.
It was only after this crucial test phase that the army continued with the complete waste management of JACADS. The approach to the 1993 and 1994 storms required the closure of the plant and the removal of more than 1,100 troops, the civilian population of the Department of the Army and the Army contractor from Johnston Island to Hawaii. In each of these cases, JACADS output was interrupted for a certain amount of while.
In August 1994, the Johnston Island storm interrupted JACADS for about 70 working nights. It took this period of patience to fix the corrupted plumbing infrastucture needed to maintain the workforce and ensure the energy and drinking energy supplies essential for JACADS work. The ocean towboat Sea Valiant arrived in the Johnston Atoll on 31 January 2000 in a cargo boat (the Malalo) and didcked at Johnston Island.
Once up and running, the plant ran 24 hours a-day on an ongoing basis, round by round on the ship for most of the next 6 working nights, transporting these former chemicals ammunition and containerry. It was part of the permanent storage to get the remnants of the former ammunition from the isle.
All of these metallic shells of once chemically loaded ammunition (or those containing chemicals in the case of one-ton containers) were handled by the Johnston Atoll Chemicals Agency Disposal System (JACADS) and demilitarised to UNHD and UK levels in the preceding HD and UK missions. In a twisting of the saying "Spear Points to Plow Point", which in this case could be amended to say "from chemical ammunitions to drive a state projectile ", this rubbish was shipped to Japan to be smelted and most likely converted into cars.
The Chemical Ammunition Company (CAC) supplied the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) with the last VX-filled M121A1 155-millimeter bullet from the "Red Hat" area on March 7, 2000. The JACADS system used its Metal Parts Furnace (MPF) on March 10, 2000 to process and decontaminate the last 155 mm bullet shells.
The JACADS project exceeded the planned March 27th deadline by 17 business day (saving over $6,000,000,000 in operating costs this time). JACADS deployment then began retrofitting its facilities and carrying out retrofitting work to continue with the next ammunition battle, which will be the bullets loaded with M426 8-inch VX.
Only two VX ammunition grades and bulky VX, which are kept in one-ton trailers, stay on the island: All of JACADS' stocked M55 neuro-missile, one-ton container of shouldard and GB neuro-medicine, a category of mustard-filled bullets and nerve-medium missiles, have already been discarded. At JACADS, all missiles, bullets, bombs and barrel casks full of GB were securely damaged.
That was equivalent to the destruction of about 74 per cent of all CW agents and ammunition in stock. By October 8, 2000, JACADS had wiped out 1,979 tonnes of the 2,031 tonnes it originally had, leaving 52 tonnes. If all ammunition is damaged, the system is disassembled.
The army is expecting to leave the atoll by 2003. As soon as this is the case, the Air Force is expecting to give the atoll back to USF&WS to resume its domestic shelter missions.