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chip class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology
Indian control area in deep foliage; stressed but uncontrollable areas in bright foliage. Well-known as the Republic of India (IAST: Bh?rat),[e] is a Southern Asian state. The Indian Ocean in the north, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Bay of Bengal in the south-east.
In the west it is bordered by Pakistan, in the NE by China, Nepal and Bhutan and in the SE by Bangladesh and Myanmar. India is located in the Indian Ocean near Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands have a sea frontier with Thailand and Indonesia.
India was the home of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millenium BC. A large part of the northern part belonged to the Delhi sultans, the southern part was unified under the Vijayanagara empire. By the mid-18th, the sub-continent came under the reign of the B.E.India Company, and by the mid-19th decade, the country was ruled by the Congolese.
At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries a nationist motion was born that later became known under Mahatma Gandhi for non-violent opposition and in 1947 resulted in India's nationalism. By 2015, India's population was the 7th biggest in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and the third biggest in terms of PPP. Following market-economy reform in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing large emerging markets.
It is a federative country ruled under a parliamentarian system and is made up of 29 states and 7 states. India derives its name from the Indus, which comes from the old Iranian Hindu name. Indoi (?????), which means "The Indus people" in translation.
Hindoustan ([??nd???st?a?n] ("listen")) is a 3. cent. BC Iranian name for India. Implemented by the Mughal people in India, it has been widely used ever since. It had a different significance in a wider area, including North India and Pakistan or India as a whole. 19 ] At present, the name can either relate to the north of India or to the whole state.
Southeast Asia's oldest authentified traces of humans date from around 30,000 years ago. Almost simultaneous Mesolithic petroglyphs have been found in many parts of the Indian sub-continent, among others in the Bhimbetka refuges in Madhya Pradesh. The Indus Valley Civilisation, the first civilisation in South Asia, grew from 2500-1900 BC in north-east Afghanistan to Pakistan and north-west India.
South India's large number of historic buildings from this time, as well as the close proximity of farming, watering basins and craftsmen' tradition, point to a progress towards settled people. Buddhism, on the basis of the Gautama Buddha teaching, drew adherents from all walks of society except the medieval world. The chronicle of Buddha's existence was pivotal to the beginnings of the taped story in India.
In the past it was believed that the Reich ruled most of the sub-continent except the extreme southern hemisphere, but it is now believed that its heartland is divided by large independent states. Hinduism in northern India claimed that there was pathriarchal domination within the host families, which led to an increase in women's submission. In the fourth and fifth century, the Gupta realm in the Ganges plain had established a complicated administrative and tax system, which became a rolemodel for the Indian empires to come.
The classical Sanskrit literatures also flourished, and Indian sciences, astrology, medicine as well as maths made significant progress. India's early Middle Ages, 600 to 1200 AD, are determined by local empires and multiculturalism. As the Chalukya tried to extend southward, they were beaten by the Pallavas from the far southern, which in turn were fought by the Pandyas and the Cholas from the far southern.
These were copied throughout India and resulted in both the revival of Hinduism and the emergence of all contemporary Hindu language of the sub-continent. The Indian kingdom, large and small, and the monasteries patronized by them, attracted large numbers of people to the capitals, which also became business centres. Tempel settlements of varying size appeared everywhere as India experienced further urbanization.
In the eighth and ninth century, the impact was felt in Southeast Asia when Southeast Indian cultures and policies were shipped to countries that belonged to present-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Java. Southeast Asians also took the lead by attending Indian seminars and translated Buddhist and Hindu language versions.
At the end of the tenth millennium, the fast-growing and fast moving troops of fast troops and the rearing of huge armed forces, combined by race and faith, overrun the northwestern plain of South Asia on several occasions and led to the founding of the Delhi Islamicult in 1206. It was supposed to inspect much of northern India and make many trips to southern India.
Though initially disturbing to the Indian elite, the country largely handed over its huge non-Muslim community to its own rules and mores. Through the repeated defence against Mongolian looters in the thirteenth centuary, the Indian government rescued from the devastations in western and central Asia, thus laying the foundations for a centuries-long immigration of refugee troops, scholars, magicians, merchants, artists and craftsmen from this area to the sub-continent and thus a syncretistic Indo-Islamic civilization in the north.
With the raids of the Sudanese monarchy and the dilution of the southern Indian regions, the way was opened for the Vijayanagara people. The kingdom, which adopted a powerful Shivite heritage and built on the Sri Lankan army technologies, came to dominate much of the Indian peninsula and would continue to affect southern Indian societies long after that.
During the early sixteenth and early sixteenth centuries, North India, then mainly under Islamic rule, once again came under the reign of the supreme movement and fire power of a new breed of warrior. Rather, the comparative tranquillity that the Reich kept up for much of the seventeenth centuries was a driver of India's commercial growth, leading to greater support for paintings, literature, textiles as well as architectural works.
New contiguous groups in the North and West Indies, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs and the Sikhs, won during the Mogul reign strategic and ruling aspirations that brought them both acknowledgment and attrition. The expansion of trade during Mughal domination led to new Indian trade and policy elite on the shores of South and East India.
At the beginning of the eighteenth decade, as the boundaries between economic and policy domination became more and more blurry, some major trade and retail firms in Europe, such as the English East India Companys, had set up coastposts. By 1765, the East India Company's command of the oceans, greater natural resource capacity and more sophisticated defence education and technologies had meant that it was becoming more and more militarily strong and attracted some of India's elites; these were key reasons why the East India Corporation gained power over the Bengali area and pushed aside the other major nationalities.
His further approach to the wealth of Bengal and the resulting increase in the power and scale of his forces allowed him to annex or subjugate most of India until the 1820s. Then India no longer exported industrial goods as it once did, but supplied the British Empire with commodities, and many geographers consider this to be the beginning of the Indian colonisation.
The number of major starvation cases increased and, despite the Indian taxpayers' risk of expanding the Indian economy, few jobs were created for Indian people. This railroad system caused a serious food shortage, cut the costs of transporting goods and assisted the emerging Indian industries. A new era began after the First World War, in which about one million Indians were serving.
This was shaped by UK institutionalism, but also by oppressive legislation, tougher Indian demands for self-government and the beginnings of a non-violent non-cooperation motion whose leaders and permanent symbols were to become Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. In the 1930' a gradual law revision was decided by the Britons; the Indian National Congress won the resulting election.
India's involvement in the Second World War, the last urge of Congress to non-cooperation and an upturn in Islam. They were all limited by the 1947 sovereignty, but mitigated by the division of India into two states: Indo-Pakistan. India's self-image as an autonomous country was determined by the 1950 completion of its own constitutional system, which established a secure and dynamic state.
The liberalization of the economy that began in the 90s has established a large metropolitan mid-range, made India one of the most rapidly expanding countries in the developing world and increased its geo-political power. India's films, soundtracks, and sacred doctrines are playing an increasingly important part in the face of contemporary Indian film. But India is also marked by apparently relentless impoverishment, both in the countryside and in the cities; by cult and box-related violent acts; by Maoist-inspired Naxalite uprisings; and by secessionism in Jammu and Kashmir and the north-east of India.
She has unsolved territory conflicts with China and Pakistan. In 1998, the Indian-Pakistan atomic conflict intensified. India's sustainable democracies are unparalleled among the newer countries in the hemisphere, but despite its recent commercial success, poverty-free living is still a target to be attained for its people.
The Indian sub-continent, which lies on the Indian Tektonic Table, and part of the Indo-Australian Table. India's geologic process began 75 million years ago, when the Indian plaque, then part of the Gondwana super-continent in the southwest, began a north-east shift due to the propagation of the seabed southwest and later south-east.
This double process, propelled by earth wall mantle convection, formed the Indian Ocean and led to the Indian mainland rust finally undermining Eurasia and the Himalayas blossoming. Just southwards of the up-and-coming Himalayas, the tectonic motion of the plates formed a huge basin that quickly began to fill with river-borne sediments and now form the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
India's shoreline is 7,517 kilometers long, of which 5,423 kilometers are part of the Indian peninsula and 2,094 kilometers of the Andaman, Nicobar and Lake Shadweep islets. The Indian nautical maps show that the coast of the Indian Ocean is made up of the following parts: The Ganges and Brahmaputra are among the most important Himalaya flows, which mainly run through India and both end in the Bay of Bengal.
The coastal characteristics are the swampy rann of Kutch in the West Indies and the Alluvia' s Sundarbans in the East Indies, which is divided with Bangladesh. There are two archipelagos: the Laksadweep, which is atolls of corals off the southwest coastline of India, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a series of volcanoes in the Andaman Sea.
India's climates are strongly affected by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which power the most important economic and cultural events of the year. Himalayas keep the Indian sub-continent warm er than most places in similar degrees of latitude and avoid the onset of catabatic wind from Cuba.
Thar Desert is a key factor in the attraction of the moisture-laden southwest Moonwinds, which account for most of India's precipitation between June and October. India is dominated by four large climate groups: tropically damp, tropically and montan. Inner Indomalaya eco-zone, India has three bio-diversity hot spots.
The habitat reaches from the Andaman Islands, West Ghats and Northeast India to the Himalayan conifer wood. In between these extreme conditions are the humid broadleaf forests of East India, the arid broadleaf forests of India's south and centre, and the babul-dominated Dornwald forests of the Dean of the east and the Ganges plains of the west.
Medical neema, which is widely used in Indian peasant herb medicines, is an important Indian plant. The Gondwana Indian plaque was abandoned more than 105 million years ago and many Indian specimens are descended from Gondwana specimens. The ensuing approach and impact with the Laurazian land on the Indian peninsula triggered a massive interchange of endemic and endemic bird populations.
Two zoogeographic passports that flank the ascending Himalayas brought Asian animals to India. IUCN has 172 IUCN classified animals or 2.9% of vulnerable groupings. Among them are the Asian Leo, the Bengal Tigers, the Black-backed Black-backed Leech and the Indian White-rumped Griffon, which is almost dead when the carcass of Biclofenac cows is taken in.
Jawaharlal Nehru's Congress won the first three parliamentary ballots of the Republic of India in 1951, 1957 and 1962. His reign took just over three years. Congress was re-elected in 1989, when a National Front co-alition headed by the new Janata Dal in league with the Front of the Left won the election; this was another relatively short-lived regime that took almost two years.
Congress, as the biggest individual political entity, was able to establish a minority-rule under the leadership of P. V. Narasimha Rao. It is a federal state with a parliamentarian system ruled under the Indian constitution and serving as the country's highest legislative instrument. The federalism in India determines the division of powers between the Union or the central administration and the states.
State oversight shall be exercised by the State. India's constitution, which came into force on 26 January 1950, states in its foreword that India is a Soviet, communist, secular as well as a democratic state. India's system of governance, which has been termed "quasi-federal" with a powerful center and fragile states, has become more and more federated since the end of the 90s due to changes in politics, economics and society.
India's leader is directly appointed by a five-year election comittee. India's premier is the leader and has the most law-enforcement powers. India's Indian Governments executives consist of the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman and the Council of Ministers, of which the Premier is the Executing Committe.
Under the Indian parliamentarian system, the government reports to the legislative authority; the PM and his advice report directly to the lower chamber of parliamen. India's legislative authority is the dual-chamber government. The majority are chosen by the state and local authorities in figures corresponding to their state's proportion of the country's people.
There is a single three-tier, autonomous judicial system in India, consisting of the Supreme Court under the direction of the Supreme Judge of India, 24 Supreme Tribunals and a large number of court-givers. Originally, the Supreme Court has competence in matters of basic law and between States and the Centres. It has competence of appeal for the Supreme Tribunals.
They have the authority both to enact the Act and to repeal non-constitutional trade unions or state legislation and to annul any actions of the State that they deem an unconstitution. lndia is a confederation of 29 states and 7 trade unions. Legislators and administrations have been chosen by all states and the trade unions of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi along the lines of the Westminster-style.
India has enjoyed warm relationships with most of the world's major powers since its liberation in 1947. At the end of the 1980', the Indian army twice interfered abroad at the request of neighboring countries: a peacekeeping mission in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990 and an armoured attack to avoid a 1988 attempted putsch in the Maldives.
It has strained relationships with neighboring Pakistan; the two countries have gone to battles four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. Of these, three were waged around the controversial Kashmir region, while the forth, the 1971 conflict, followed India's assistance to Bangladesh's independent state. Following the Indo-Chinese conflict of 1962 and the 1965 Pakistan conflict, India maintained strong strategic and trade links with the Soviet Union; at the end of the sixties, the Soviet Union was its main arsenal.
In addition to its current strategy with Russia, India has extensive defensive links with Israel and France. Over the past few years she has been playing a pivotal role in the South Asian Association for Territorial Cooperation and the World Trade Organisation. It has strong trade links with South America, Asia and Africa; it has a" Look East" approach aimed at strengthening partnership with ASEAN, Japan and South Korea on many topics, but above all on business investments and local safety.
China's 1964 atomic test and its recurrent threat to interfere in Pakistan's 1965 conflict persuaded India to deploy it. In 1974 India performed its first atomic weapon test and in 1998 further subterranean tests. In spite of criticisms and armed penalties, India has not yet ratified either the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty or the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
As part of its "minimum credible deterrence" tenet, India has a " no first use " atomic politics and develops a triadic aptitude. India has strengthened its cooperation with the United States and the European Union in the fields of economics, strategy and war. A civil nuke treaty was concluded between India and the United States in 2008.
Though India had atomic arms at the inception and was not a contracting part of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, it was granted exemptions by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, which removed previous limitations on India's atomic arsenal. India subsequently became the 6th de facto atomic weapon state.
Afterwards, India concluded cooperation accords with Russia, France, the United Kingdom and Canada in the field of civil atomicity. India's President is the highest commanding officer of the nation's armies; with 1,395 million operating units, he is the second biggest army in the state. The Indian Army, Indian Navy, Indian Air Force and Indian Coast Guard.
India's formal defense spending for 2011 was USD 36.03 billion or 1.83% of GDP. The SIPRI 2008 survey showed India's average spending in monetary value was US$72.7 billion per year. 6%, but without means reaching the army through other forms of governance.
Since 2012 [update] India has been the world's biggest weapons importing country; between 2007 and 2011, 10% of the resources were allocated to the purchase of weapons internationally. A large part of the country's armed forces spending was concentrated on defending itself against Pakistan and fighting China's increasing impact in the Indian Ocean. India's 25 billion tons of steel deposits account for 6% of the world's total resources.
It is the world's fourth-largest manufacturer and third biggest export. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports that India's nominal value in 2017 was USD 2.611 trillion, making it the 6th biggest in nominal terms in terms of foreign currency and the third biggest in terms of buying force balance (PPP) at USD 9.459 trillion.
16 ] With an compound year on year increase in gross domestic product of 5.8% over the last two years and 6.1% in 2011-12, India is one of the most rapidly expanding countries in the global economy. Up until 1991, all Indian government pursued a policy of protectionism under the influence of the Indian economy. Since 1 January 1995 India has been a member of the WTO.
India's per-capita nominal gross domestic product has risen from USD 329 in 1991, when the liberalization of the economy began, to USD 1,265 in 2010 and an estimate of USD 1,723 in 2016 and is projected to rise to USD 2,358 by 2020; however, it has stayed lower than that of other emerging economies in Asia such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand and will so on.
But it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others. A 2011 PwC forecast predicts that India's PPP could surpass that of the United States by 2045. India's annual growth rate is set to increase by 8% over the next four centuries, making it the most rapidly expanding Indian country in the global market by 2050.
In order to reach its full commercial capacity, the Bank warns India must remain focused on reforming the government services, transportation infrastructures, agriculture and countryside developments, the abolition of labor standards, training, energy safety and the provision of food and drink. India is unorganized. India's automobile market, which is experiencing the world's second rapid growth, saw a 26% increase in Indian car volumes in 2009/10 and a 36% increase in export in 2008/09.
India's electricity generation potential is 300 GW, 42 GW of which are renewables. 239 ] At the end of 2011, India's IT sector had 2.8 million skilled workers, a turnover of almost 100 billion US dollars, equivalent to 7.5% of India's GDP, and 26% of India's goods export. In spite of the economical increase of the last few years, India still faces socio-economic problems.
India's population in 2006 lived below the World Bank's global $1.25 per person per diem, falling from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005 and below the later revision of the World Bank's level of income in 2011 (21%). 7 percent of Indian kids under five are overweight.
India is the second largest nation in the hemisphere with 1,210,193,422 inhabitants in the 2011 preliminary People' s Republicensus. 262 ] The progress in medicine over the last 50 years and the increase in rural production as a result of the "Green Revolution" have allowed India's people to expand quickly. There are still several issues facing India in the field of PR.
In India, people live 68 years and 69 years. For every 100,000 Indians there are about 50 doctors. The migration from the countryside to the cities was an important dynamism in India's recent past. Indians who live in the cities increased by 31.
271 ] According to the 2011 Indian metropolitan areas include Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad in declining order of number. Improving the level of illiteracy in the countryside is twice as high as in the city. The Indian culture has been around for more than 4,500 years.
The country is characterised by its wide range of religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism are among its most important allies. A large part of Indian architectural style, such as the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal and Southern Indian style combine old traditional Indian style with an import. Taj Mahal, erected in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of Emperor Shah Jahan in commemoration of his woman, was described in the UNESCO list of UNESCO as" the gem of Islamic arts in India and one of the world's most revered works of masterpiece of world cultural heritage".
In India, the first written works written between 1700 BC and 1200 AD were in Sanskrit. Kamasutra, the renowned textbook on sex, is also from India. Between 600 BC and 300 AD, the Sangam literatures in southern India, comprising 2,381 verses, are considered to be the forerunners of Tamil-literatures.
India's literature tradition went through a time of dramatic transformation from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century with the advent of dedicated writers such as Kab?r, Tuls?d?s and Guru N?nak. That time was marked by a diverse and broad range of thoughts and expressive styles, so that the mediaeval Indian literature works clearly distinguished themselves from the classic tradition.
During the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, Indian authors became interested in societal issues and psychology. During the twentieth c., Indian literary works were inspired by the works of the Bengali writer and writer Rabindranath Tagore, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literary Studies. India's movie production is the most widely viewed movie theater in the run.
Cinemas in the southern Indian region attract more than 75% of the country's films. TV transmission began in India in 1959 as a state communications media and expanded slowly over two decade-long periods. 310 ] The state TV empire ended in the 1990' and since then the use of satellites has become an increasing feature of Indian society's population.
Today, TV is the most penetrating medium in India; according to sector estimations, by 2012[update] there will be over 554 million TV users, 462 million with satellites and/or cables, in comparison with other types of popular communication such as the print medium (350 million), broadcast (156 million) or the web (37 million). Traditionally Indian societies are sometimes determined by hierarchical structures.
India's cast system represents much of the layering and many of the limitations of society on the Indian sub-continent. In 1947 India proclaimed the intangible illegal and since then has passed further anti-discrimination legislation and launched further societal campaigns. In the work place in India's cities and in major Indian corporations and corporations, box-related identity has almost completely disappeared.
A lot of Indian feasts are of worshiping origins. 329 ] India has three public holiday periods that are respected in all states and trade unions - Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. In India cotton was domesticized around 4000 BC. Indian clothing traditionally differs in color and styles in different areas and will depend on various different elements, as well as weather and beliefs.
The use of soft jewelry based on the model of genuine Indian cathedrals is part of an approximately 5,000-year-old custom; precious stones are also used in India as a charm. India continues to enjoy some of the most common tribal disciplines such as cabaddi, ko ho ko ho, pehlwan and gilli-danda. Several of the early types of Asiatic fighting skills such as Calarippayattu, Mosti Juddha, Silamamam and Morma Odi come from India.
It is generally thought that Indian history of Indian history as wwww. org is gaining back importance with the increase in the number of Indian masters. In India, the management of the game is handled by the Indian company IKI. In 1975, the Indian ice hockey world championship was won by the Indian national team. From 2016[update] won eight golden, one bronze and one bronze medal, making it the most succesful sports club at the Olympics.
It has also been an important factor in the popularisation of crime. This makes it by far the most favoured sports in India. India won the 1983 and 2011 World Cup tournaments, the ICC World Twenty 20 in 2007, the ICC Champions Trophy in 2002 with Sri Lanka and the ICC Champions Trophy in 2013.
The Ranji Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Irani Trophy and NKP Salve Challenger Trophy are national contests. BCCI also hosts an yearly Twenty 20 contest known as the Indian Premier League.
It has co-sponsored or organised several world sports events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games, the 1987, 1996 and 2011 World Cricket Championships, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy, the 2010 World Hockey Championship and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. The Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon and Indian Masters are among the most important annual sports venues in India.
India's first Formula 1 Grand Prix took place at the end of 2011, but has not been included in the F1 Seasonal Calender since 2014. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest form of state acknowledgement for sporting achievements; the Dronacharya Award is presented for outstanding achievements in caching.
Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India, except for such changes in the words that the government can approve according to the cause; and the Vande Mataram tune, which has been playing a historical role in the fight for India's liberty, should also be honored with Jana Gana Mana and have the same state.
" The Constituent Assembly of India in 1950. Besides Hindi, English is another formal administrative langue for the work of the state. India's top regions are 3,287,260 square kilometres and 3,060,500 square kilometres, while the United Nations leads with 3,287,263 square kilometres and 2,973,190 square kilometres.
See also: Indian name in its own language. The Indian government also regards Afghanistan as a neighbouring state, as it regards all of Kashmir as part of India. This is controversial, however, and the Afghanistan border area is managed by Pakistan. Archiveed from the orginal (PDF) on March 17, 2015.
The most northern point under Indian scrutiny is the controversial Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir, but the Indian government considers the whole of the former prince state of Jammu and Kashmir, which includes Gilgit-Baltistan, managed by Pakistan, as its area. National Symbols | National Portal of India".
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