How many Samoan Islands are thereLike many Samoan islands are there?
Aunu' u, Ta' u, Ofu, Olosega, Swains Island and Rose Atoll. Samoa is governed by an elective gubernatorial and local legislative authority and a non-voting U.S. House of Representatives representative. Americans of Samoa are regarded as US citizens.
To the west, the island consists of West Samoa, an autonomous area. The islands have a combined populace of 182,000 and a combined area of 1,104 sqm. West Samoa is made up of four islands: Apolima, Savaii and Manu'a, the biggest but also the most under developed of these islands.
Formerly a United Nations Protection Agency under New Zealand management, West Samoa is a member of the British Commonwealth. The Samoan is usually warm and humid, with an average of 79. 5 degree F and high yearly rain. Samoans outside Samoa far outnumber the total populations of West and US Samoa.
In Auckland, New Zealand, Honolulu, Hawaii, Los Angeles, California, San Francisco, California, and Salt Lake City, Utah, there are large population of Samoans abroad. The majority of older Samoans abroad are migrants, although many of their descendants are naturally native nationals of their country of residence. However, regardless of where they were originally from, Samoan tribes are connected by an unmistakable culture that is still flourishing on these South Pacific islands.
Between 500 and 800 B.C., the Samoan islands were inhabited by an Australian tribe characterised by the manufacture of lapita ceramics - a singular ceramic shape called after one of the ancient ceramic fragments found in Melanesia. On the basis of archeological, botanic and language proofs it seems almost certain that the Samoan forefathers had their origin in Indo-Malaysia, lived several hundred years along the coast of New Guinea and then colonised Samoa and Tonga, another Pacific Isl.
It' s not clear if Samoa or Tonga were colonised first, but the Polish civilization evolved from the Lapita people. The Lapita potter once in Samoa evolved a physical civilization characterised by some large rock reinforcements, early watering experiments and an astonishing skill in the production of high quality boating woods.
Samoan ship's wood did not go unnoticed. Indeed, the first reports on Samoa in Europe admirably refer to the work of the islanders in this area. Samoan boat workmanship proposed a simple device with ferrous implements, according to the notes of Jacob Roggeveen, the first Samoan to explore Samoa.
In 1722 during his unfortunate journey from the Netherlands to New Ireland to the islands, he came to the island of Sardinia. The Samoan sailors were a robust, sound group, although he confused their inking. Though he exchanged a few pins for a few rogue nuts, Rogerveen could not lure any of the Samoans aboard hiship.
Louis Antoine de Bougainville, the second discoverer of Europe to come to Samoa, called the Islands "Navigator Islands" in honour of the excellent sailboats that the locals were manning. "After seeing Bougainville's boat, the Samoans sent a karate club in a boat to see him. "The" roots" presented to Bougainville were probably those of Piper methystysticum, made in Samoa to make the drink called âKavaâ, which is drunk on festive occasion.
On December 6, 1787, the root of cava was solemnly presented to the next European, the discoverer La Perouse. As is customary, the Piper methyticum root was presented with an ascending rhythm, which significantly enriched the atmosphere of the Kara ritual.
Unfortunately, the La Perouse mission came up against a cataclysm when 11 members of the garrison were later murdered by Samoans. French alleged the assault was unconvoked, although they admit that the assault came after firing musket over the minds of some Samoans to convince them to let go of a wire on a long canoe.
Subsequent accounts indicate that the slaughter took place after the shooting of the French and murdered a Samoan who tried to take an steel tack. It was verified by J. B. Stair, who said that the slaughter took place after the retaliation of a small robbery by lifting a Samoan from a long vessel (Stair, Old Samoa, 1897).
Irrespective of the actual cause of the dispute, La Perouse cultivated a legend of barbarism about the Samoans in his entourage and noted with bitter bitterness in his memoir that he would abandon the documentary of Samoan-Art. In 1787, the 1787 carnage of the Astrolabe's seamen gave the Samoans the call of a wilderness that prevented the islands' further research in Europe except for a few brief encounters such as the 1791 H.M.S. Pandora's trip.
Few whaling ships and battleships entered the Samoan harbours in the following years. Wesleyan Tongan misionaries came to Samoa in 1828, but they had little progress in their missionary efforts. However, in 1830 John Williams sent the Ambassador of Peace to Savaii under the direction of a Samoan conversion from Rarotonga.
First he travelled to Sapapapalii, home of Malietoa, the highest ranked chieftain in Samoa. Williams received Malietoa's approval during an on board survey to allow Tahitian and Rarotongan ministers to arrive in Samoa. In 1832 Williams went back to Samoa to find the new beliefs of Christianity. Peter Turner officially founded the Wesleyan missions on the Isle of Manono in 1835.
Proselytisation activity progressed rapidly, especially when George Pratt and Charles Wilson of the London Mission Society were translating the Bible into Samoan. Though Williams' ministers were expressly directed to limit their activity to the area of religion, the influence of Europe's missionary work on Samoan civilization was quick and deep.
The Samoans have given up their former religions and dramatically changed key culture practice. War as an tool of politic transformation was rejected, as were polygyny, abortions, "indecent" dance and certain usual clothes (such as the titti, a rock of cordy line terminis leaves).
Only a few years had passed since a radical reorganisation of Samoan tradition. Faeifeau or the minister had a new and central part in this civilization, a prestigious position that is upheld. Later others with less Protestant interests came to Samoa. In 1839, the U.S. Exploring Expedition paid a visit to and charted Samoa.
Cmdr Charles Wilkes named John Williams' boy American Vice Consul. Samoa's geo-political importance has grown over the years due to its close vicinity to the south of the whale-fishing areas and the incomparable port of Pago Pago. 1857 the Geman company Godeffroy strongly extended the coppra business and founded a local centre in Samoa.
As a result of this heightened interest in Samoa, considerable tension arose between the three Colonies on the Isle. In the 1880s Samoa was divided between the Eastern (Eastern Samoa) and Western (German Samoa) parts. The American Samoa was ultimately assigned to the United States by the Tutuila and Manu'a chieftains and managed by the Department of the Navy as US-Territories.
Up until the 1960', the area was largely overlooked when President John F. Kennedy called on John Hayden to "set Samoa in motion". "In the 1960' and 1970', American Samoa grew rapidly. Measures were taken to introduce a referendum to appoint the local gubernator, a post previously occupied by a Washington, D.C. nomination.
During the First World War West Samoa moved from the Teutonic to the New Zealand government after an unbloody intrusion. Westsamoa was proclaimed League of Nations Trust Territory under New Zealand management after the end of the Napoleonic uprising. A Samoan leader and a man of great intelligence and attendance, Tamasese, was executed by New Zealand troops during this outbreak.
However, later New Zealand took on a friendlier part in Western Samoa and helped the state to prepare for its 1962 independent regime. Today, Western Samoa is headed by a House of Representatives and a Taoiseach, with His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II as the solemn head of state. The Samoan migration to New Zealand, Australia and the United States speeded up in the fifties.
West Samoa, which has a strong historical connection with New Zealand, sent a number of scholars to New Zealand to graduate. Samoa saw many of its people enrolling in U.S. civilian service. Samoan people who decided to go to church were often trained by Anglicans in London. And all these experience abroad is encouraging more and more Samoans to migrate from Samoa to these faraway world.
After the first waves of Samoan migration abroad, many second-generation Samoans were not just natives of the islands but of their new state. The 1990 United States Federal Population Survey found that over 55,000 Americans were of Samoan ancestry. However, the Samoan Americans' power has extended far beyond these confined areas.
Samoan Americans made many and varied speeches. Samoan soldiers' bravery and bravery became legend during the Korea and Vietnam wars. Skills on the court resulted in significant appreciation for Samoan Americans in the disciplines of collegiate and pro soccer, New Zealand rugby and even Japanese sumo wrestling. 2.
The Samoan US politicians such as Faleolemavaega Eni Hunkin, who acted as a personnel counsel for the House Subcommittee on National Parks and Lands and later as the US Samoan representative to the United States Congress, and regulators Peter Coleman and A.P. Lutali have been playing an increasingly noticeable part in formulating US policies in the Pacific border.
However, many newcomers from Samoa were compelled to work as unskilled workers in low-paid positions. Some few members of the Samoan fellowship are undocumented foreigners who are separated in legal, linguistic and cultural terms from their guest states. The Samoans in America as a group are confronted with all the tension and difficulty that other groups of migrants face when they are newcomers.
A lot of older Samoans, especially from Western Samoa, are hesitant to do so. But in areas with a high Samoan presence, even Americans who fluently use English are confronted with significant prejudices. Like during the La Perousexpedition the Samoans have earned an unjustified reputation in some areas as criminals of violence.
A small number of Samoan youths were involved in activities by the gangs, and all young Samoan Americans were dismissed as crooks. Even unbiased commentators admit that there have been cases where it has been hard for a Samoan to get a clean bill of health in Hawaii.
New Zealand, Hawaii, California and Utah now have a revival and organisation of Samoan expatriates to target younger Samoan descent and educate them about Samoan traditions and civilizations. The Samoan civilization, which is largely hospitable, is sometimes mystic for both Westerners and the descendants of Samoans living abroad who know little about the way and tongue of their heritages.
Scientists are also sometimes bewildered, and as a consequence Samoan civilization has been the subject of much debate. Margaret Mead in Samoa's Samoan youth were not affected by the storm and urge of young Americans. In contrast to her colleagues in the West, she argues that young adults in Samoa go through puberty relatively well.
Their opinions were questioned by man of letters Derek Freeman, who claimed that Samoan civilization was hierarchically, power-conscious and sometimes brutal in contrast to the loose Samoan character depicted by Mead. Samoan civilization is much more complicated than both camps want to acknowledge. In contrast to Mead's claim that the Samoans are a "primitive" race, Samoan civilization is ingenious and demanding and is illustrated by Samoan language and rhetoric abilities, which are notable.
The Samoan settlements are just as complicated in their structures, with an abundance of different plains of matei or chieftains. The village inhabitants are connected in different ways with a number of shared ancestral groups. The Samoan kitchen is quite dull and does not vary much. Samoan people have two or three daily dinners, composed of either tare or raw rices prepared with homemade cooking of homemade food, baked goods, and usually some sausage.
Fruit, although abundant on the isle, is rarely consumed during mealtimes. Samoan raw chocolate, which is an exquisite flavor for many people, is usually enjoyed with meals: lemongrass green teas, lemongrass teas or beans. Samoan people do not usually talk during a meal, as the host does not usually dine until the guest has completed their feed.
In recent years, many Samoans have moved from a more Western approach to eating starch-rich fruit and soya. It is the belief of the Samoan health care system that this nutritional shift has led to a high risk of diabetic disease. Though Samoans look well-groomed in old-fashioned towns, some expatriates suffer from adiposity, possibly as a consequence of a more settled life style.
Samoa garments consist of lava, a unique fabric that men and woman wear as a wraparound dress. People in secluded towns go out without shirts when doing laundry or other domestic work. The Samoans like colourful flower patterns in both lava and lace, while dark colours are preferable on paper.
Samoan men often carry a lava of lava fabric in such cases. The Samoans rather dress clothed in blank clothes for Sunday school. Though Samoan ideas of humility may differ from those of the West, they are very important to Samoans. There are many Samoan towns that forbid beachwear such as swimsuits and swimsuits.
Whereas the look and clothing of Samoan men are subjected to a number of culture limitations, full-length tattooing is customary in Samoan men. It' is felt by Samoans to help men appreciate the protracted contractions associated with birth. Samoa and Western Samoa both have their own public holiday.
Christmas, Easter and other holy days are also very important for the Samoans. "The worship services on this date revolve around recitation by heart from kids. The Samoan medicinal practice shows them a certain empiric justification: a large number of Samoan medicinal herbs show pharmaceutical activities in the labor.
For example, the National Cancer Institute recently approved the new anti-HIV drug prostrate, which was found in a Samoan herb used by conventional herbalists. Samoan people believe that there are some diseases that cannot be remedied by the West. The Musu, a young woman's mental health condition characterised by an almost Autism retreat from communications, has been successfully healed in New Zealand by tradition.
The Samoan practitioners live and practise, albeit in secret, in most Samoan churches abroad. Samoan people believe that the main causes of diseases are bad nutrition, bad sanitation and interhuman antagonism. As Samoa is a consensual country with a strong focus on accountability and families, many believe that a person who does not help his own families, who does not take charge of rural living and who otherwise does not take part in conventional cultures is at high risks of becoming ill.
The language isola-tion makes some interactions with the older Samoans difficult, but in general the Samoans are grateful for the Western medicines and respond to mandatory treatments. Samoans are particularly prone to high levels of diabetics and other diseases associated with a high-fat nutrition and reduced exercise.
However, as a people, Samoans have a lower level of blood pressure than one would expect given their nutrition and adiposity. Kokosnussöl, which is very much at satisfied fat, play an important role in the Samoan nutrition. A lot of Samoan treats like âPalusamiâ (young tea leaf with crème of coconut) are boiled in crème of coconuts.
An American Samoa health center, the L.B.J. Tropical Medical Center in Fagalu, near Pago Pago. Western Samoa National hospital in Moto'otua is also a good institution, especially for a less developed state. Samoan is an old version of the Polish vernacular. The Samoan is the Samoan tongue of trade and ordinary community interaction, while Respect Samoan contains expressions of honor used for others of the same or higher order.
Samoan's third linguistic form, the rhetorical Samoan, is a series of literal, genealogic and poetical innuendo. The Samoan vocals are spoken very easily; the way the vocal pronunciations are approached in France is similar. "The Samoan term for "thank you" - fa'afetai - "fah-ah-faytie" is used. "The Samoan "g" tone is also hard for some aliens to control.
It' expressed similar to the "ng" in "sing along"; the Samoan term for gun-quaqua is therefore expressed as "fah-ngah". "Samoans also pronounce the "n" tone as "ng". After all, in Samoan, the "k" tone is spoken instead of the "t"; fa'afetai thus becomes "fa'afekai".
" Samoans, however, do not like it, if a foreigner uses slang pronunciations. Samoan words place all symbols with a light emphasis on the next to last one. These are some general Samoan greetings and their translation into English: Ualofa -hello; fa'afetai -thank you; Ufa -goodbye; malo -congratulations; Uafioga -your Highness (high chief); Uafa -your Highhness ( "orator"); Uausuga-sir.
The ceremonial Samoan is perhaps one of the most complicated rhetoric known to man. The oratorio has long been an inherent part of Samoan civilization. Oratorial skills in Samoa are a sought-after asset because from a historical point of view they have given the best practicians prestigiousness, as well as a lot of culturally influential and physical goods.
In Samoa, the importance of the Samoan system of chieftains was even institutionalised. There are two kinds of chieftains in Samoan culture: high chieftains, who act very strongly as the village's leaders; and speakers or "talking chieftains", who advocate the town in its relations with others.
The Samoan speakers are supposed to remember an astonishing amount of information, among them the historic happenings of Samoa, a comprehensive listing of Samoan proverbs and the family histories of most large Samoan populations. Hearing the Samoan oratorio during a Kawa ceremonial can be an impressive one.
The Samoan oratorio is performed in a cadenza and clear sounding part. Unfortunately, this verbal custom, the highest of all Samoan forms of artistic expression, is the one that is most unapproachable to non-Germans. A very small amount of Samoan official language has ever been interpreted into English. Samoan people have a broad perspective on family ties.
The Samoan a'iga or familiy comprises all persons descended from a single parent. The Samoan lineage is complicated and strongly intertwined, but also very important; all Samoans are required to help and minister to their forefathers. Every large familys has one or more bosses, who organise and lead the whole group.
The Samoan men are assembled in the Polynesian Cultural Center in Laie, Oahu, Hawaii. to their families. The whole familiy can be punished by the local councillor for serious violations. Extrequently, the offender's leader may be deprived of his titles and the country may inherit the name.
Afraid of embarrassing one's own large household thus acts as a strong cultural scare. A misdemeanour against anyone, especially the aged - who are venerated in Samoan civilisation - or young girls, can be regarded as a misdemeanour against the victim's whole household. Unlike in the West, which praises the individual, Samoan civilization emphasises the importance of familial bonds and responsibilities.
Serious crimes in Samoan civilization can be saved by an whenoga. At an whenoga, the whole large familiy and the community of an offender assemble before sunrise in front of the home of the insulted or wounded group. There, they are sitting with delicate matting when the day comes.
While there is no westerly counterpart to an whenoga, but carrying out an whenoga in West Samoa, even for a serious offence, often leads to a renunciation or a drastic decrease in the sentences that would otherwise have been imposed. Samoan conception of the Samoan has far-reaching economical effects.
Samoans are all supposed to give money to their family. A large part of their incomes are sent back to their Samoan family. Transfers from abroad account for a substantial part of West Samoa's revenue. Though such referrals are a gift from heaven to the relatively fragile West Samoa economic system, there is still fear that the third generations of Samoans living abroad will be so deeply integrated into West European culture that this practise will not last.
Whilst older Samoans have the respect in which they are kept, younger members of the civilization struggle with the complex proces of mating. The date is scorned in isolated towns. For young men and young girls, the cultural way to get together is for the young man to give gifts and meals to the young woman's wife's wife's family and to woo her intentions in the female's family's company.
Even a small departure from this model in conventional towns can expose the young man to a certain degree of bodily injury from the young woman's family. Brethren in Samoan tradition see it as their family obligation to sort out unjustified applicants or unreasonable efforts to woo their sisters without paternal care on them.
However, these tradtional customs have evolved with the westernization of Samoanism. At Pago Pago and Apia, youngsters meet, visit dance, take part in movies and meet in most of the West. Since the rise of Christianity, marriages have become more frequent, but in Samoa many are living together and even raising unmarried babies.
Sometimes this tradition, known as "nofo fa'apouliuli", works like a test wedding in which a Samoan tries out the relation before getting involved with a sole mate. In Samoan civilization, illegal identity does not have the same adverse connotations as in other civilizations. Kids are welcome in a familiy and are often brought up by grand-parents or other relations as their own descendants.
Generally speaking, the kids are very mobile within the Samoan group. In Samoa it is not unusual for a child to be brought up by a person other than its birth-parent. Very often a child is brought up by members of the large household or even by a friend. Irrespective of their gender relations with men and women in the household, all of our employees treat their kids the same.
Up to about the ages of seven, the Samoan cultures raise young men and women in almost the same way. However, young women aged eight to ten are considered to have an important role in the care of other infants. In Samoan towns it is not unusual for eight or nine-year-old women to carry a six-month-old on their hips.
Toddlers and their mother have a particular state in Samoa. Samoan weddings usually include celebrations, dance and a lot of cheerfulness. The broadcast of a main theme is another remarkable Samoa culture experience. The chieftain's immediate descendants usually prepares barrels of corndoke, thin mat ting, cash and other objects to "pay" the settlement that gives the name.
Some towns wrap the contender for the boss in a thin sheet bound with a sheet; he becomes chieftain when the sheet is released. Often the money is ornamentally placed in the chieftain's head ornament. The new chieftain with the new name is the only person in the community with the exception of the immediate one.
In addition, in Samoan tradition all members of the new chieftain use the chieftain's name as their new surname. After the foundation, the new chieftain is supposed to participate in community council meetings, to act with decency and honour, to assist community activity through handicrafts and financial contributions and, above all, to serve the interests of his own families and town.
Several chiefs in Samoa also have specific names like Malietoa, Tamasese, Tupuola, or Salamasina. Transferring chieftain title has become a tricky affair for foreign Samoans, as in Samoan tradition all chieftain title is linked to an identified part of Samoa territory. Expatriated Samoans who seek a title usually have to go back to Samoa for the ritual.
Non-Samoan securities, however, are disputed within Samoa. Rarely do sovereigns, helpers and other international guests receive honorary degrees that are not applicable to Samoan rural relations and are not recognised by the regional and titular court. Though almost all chieftains are men, several of them have mainly degrees, and in at least one case a hamlet has given a qualifying degree to a Samoan-speaking alien, which is recorded and recognised by the regional and titular court.
The Samoan burials contain important rallies of the high Samoan civilization. The large families of the surviving dependants prepare cash, delicate mattresses, barrels with corndbean, swine and fallen goods in a burial in order to present them to the onlookers. At the end of the burial there will be a speaker representing the surviving dependants.
Samoan civilization is very welcoming for newcomers. It is important to quickly see if other persons are using footwear when you enter a Samoan home or at any other socialite. It' usually seen as irreverent to run over a carpet in a Samoan home with your boots on. If you enter a room or gathering of Samoans in a cultured environment, it is regarded as good practice to go through the room and shaking hands, smile and look into each person's eye.
In Samoan civilization, it is regarded as impolite to turn to someone who is seated. It' important to respect the Samoan people' s hospitableness. With a mug of cava you can drop a few droplets to the floor (symbolic of the return of kindness to earth) and say "Ia manuia" ("eeah mahnn-wee-ah"), which means "there is blessing".
Accepting presents is important in Samoa. A Samoan's present should not be rejected. One of the most frequent presents is that of foods or mat. In Samoan civilization there are also some laws of label regarding eating. You should never dine in front of a Samoan without sharing it.
The Samoan people are very polite to each other even under hard conditions. Those who practice decency even under stress conditions receive good grades in Samoan civilization. The Samoan people value learning very much. Westsamoa has an amazingly high litreacy ratio of about 98 per cent for a third-world state. At first, in the village, the parish schools are where the kids learn to do so.
In Samoan upbringing, the main focus is on learning by heart. However, there are different philosophies of learning from place to place. For example, Western Samoan seminarians are pursuing an upbringing that is in many ways similar to the system learned in New Zealand, while US Samoa seminarians are receiving an upbringing that is in many ways similar to the continental US syllabus.
The best Westsamoa colleges are often run by church. Though there is a American Samoa Fellowship School and two universities in West Samoa, many Samoans have higher educational backgrounds in either New Zealand or the United States. Most Samoan Americans study economics, jurisprudence or other subjects in the field of sociology.
Religions play an important place in the Samoan people, which has been strikingly ignored by many Samoan cultural scholars. Samoan civilization is devout. The majority of Samoan homes hold a night-long Lotus or Vesper worship in which the homestay is gathered, read from the Bible and offer prayer.
Visiting Samoa is almost all-purpose; the main confessions on the islands are Anglicans, Methodists, Catholics and Mormons. In Samoa, religious leaders have a similar position to that of high chieftains and receive exceptional reverence. However, the Samoan religions have a singular Polish turn.
The majority of Samoan Americans choose to organise and take part in Samoan-speaking communities, with some accommodations created for their non-Samoan-speaking descendants. Singering in a Samoan community is delightful and wonderful. Most Samoan worship service quotes the Samoan Bible, which has been directly interpreted from Greek. On the whole, the Samoans are much more acquainted with the Bible than their West colleagues.
As Samoans from the USA do not participate in domestic election and the Samoan government manages the area in a fairly cross-party way, it is hard to judge the Samoan people's policy tendencies. Hawaii, which has been a traditional powerful stronghold for the DPR, is home to many Samoans, but many Samoan Americans also reside in the staunchly Mexican territories of Orange County, California and Utah.
Minimal wages legislation is a permanent preoccupation of those who are living in American Samoa. Islands were given a renunciation of compliance with the minimal wages bill due to the devastation that the conversion would cause to canned canning factories in American Samoa. The renunciation was superseded in 1997 by a committee based on industrial norms and equity in setting the American Samoa payrolls.
Trade unions' participation seems to be relatively low among Samoan employees. West Samoa has a vibrant politic environment, with much scuffle and intrigues between the various factions. In some quarters there are still discussions about the possibility of unifying the two Samoan areas into a unified state. Only a few Americans seem to be in favour of this notion.
Its opposition to the Samoan reunification is not only due to the enormous differences in the economy between American Samoa and West Samoa, but also to different forms of culture-trajectory. While there are significant language and culture parallels between West and American Samoa, an agreement seems unlikely. Instead, many West Samians try to migrate to American Samoa.
Significant contribution to US civilisation has been made by the following people. Samoa has a TV channel that broadcasts programmes under the leadership of the Samoa Regional Administration. There are three stations broadcasting all over Samoa. In the evenings they support US networking programs and during the day they support education programs they produce in their own country. Westsamoa has also recently opened a TV productions plant.
Americans as well as West Samoa run several radios. 2AP in West Samoa is the main means of communications with local communities. Each night, death, birth, conference or other background information is posted on 2AP to inform those who have no other means of accessing information about what is happening on the islands.
Samoan-speaking radioprogrammes are also broadcasted by radios in Auckland, Honolulu and Salt Lake City. The Samoa News. P.O. Box 909, Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799. Presents, retains and immortalizes the art, craft, cultural and traditions of Fijians, Hawaiians, Maori, Marquesans, Tahitians, Tongans, Samoans and other Polynesians. Important Samoa galleries are the O. F. Nelson Memorial Library in Apia, the Oliveti Library in Pago Pago, the Turnbull Library in Wellington and the Bernice P. Bishop Library in Honolulu.
Important Samoan artefacts can be found in the Dominion in Auckland, New Zealand, the Bernice P. Bishop in Honolulu, the Lowie in Berkeley and the Ethnological in Basel, Switzerland. Shifting Samoans: Islands, vegetation and Polynesians: Davidson, J. M. "Samoa and Tonga", in The Prehistory of Polynesia.
West Samoa. Freeman, D., and Margaret Mead-Samoa: Kennedy, P.M. The Samoan Tangle: