Hawaii Population by IslandPeople of Hawaii by Islands
It is only on the most eastern 650 kilometres of the country that there are inhabited areas of all sizes and almost the entire population of the country. It' s this part that is usually regarded as the real "Hawaii". "The eight major Hawaiian isles - Hawaii, Maui, Kauai, Lanai, Molokai, Niihau and Kahoolawe - cover more than 99% of the country and only a few of them.
Hawaii covers 8,150 km2, almost two-thirds of the state's area. It is often only called the Big Island. Kahoolawe, the smallest of the eight, is 125 km2 and uninhabitated. And Hawaii is in the Pacific Ocean. Honolulu, the state capitol, is located 3,850 kilometres westward of San Francisco, California, 6,500 kilometres eastward of Tokyo, Japan, and about 7,300 kilometres to the North Eastern side of the state.
However, when the Pacific Basin region began to interact more with each other and use the oceans' natural resource base, these archipelagos became an important centre of interrelations. Hawaii' s range is only the visual part of a line of solid volcanos. In order for a vulcano to be able to break up to the sea level, it needs a hill that is already 5 kilometres high.
Most of the kind of vulcanic activities that have formed the island and continue there to this day were not of the kind of explosives in which large chunks of materials are cast over long stretches. There are volcano craters on the island that have been formed by exploding volcanoes. Honolulu's emblem, Diamond Head, is the tallest at about 240m.
Usually the form of the resulting vulcanic hills is dome-shaped, with the major characteristic being hilly hillsides instead of precipitous rock. Some of the volcanoes on Big Island are still in use. As Mauna Loa releases oxygen every four years on averages, vulcanic activities pose a permanent danger to Hilo, the island's foremost city.
One 1950 explosion encompassed about 100 sqkm. In 1960, a river from Kiluea stretched over 10 km2 and enlarged the island by about 260ha. Though Hawaii is a state of rough hillsides and sudden differences in altitude. Seacliffs intersected by wave forms a dramatic border to parts of the isles.
A few small creeks on the northeastern side of Big Island fall directly into the ocean over such rock. Waimea Canyon's bottom, on Kauai, is more than 800 metres below the area of the area. Several hundred meter high falls are usual on the island. Pali, on Oahu, is a series of rocks where the springs of brooks that erode from opposite sides of the island mingle.
An important outcome of this intensive erosion is a small number of even areas on the isles. The Maui has a shallow, slender middle section that separates the mountains. It has a wide main river basin and several large coastlines. Hawaii Island has only a few small areas of coastline shelter.
Hawaii's oceans obviously have a significant influence on the global warming. It' s the oceans that fill the wind with the waters that are brushing the island's mount. It also mitigates the island's extreme temperatures - the all-time high of 31°C contrasts with a all-time low of only 13°C. This, together with the country's marine situation, means that there are only minor variations in seasons.
Rainfall fluctuations characterize the great changes in the seasons on the island. Hawaii during the summers is under the constant impact of northeastern Brazil wind approaching the island over cold, northeastern water, creating typical Hwaiian climate - windy, sunshine with some cloud, warmer but not warmer.
Howaiian meteorological wards have also captured 28 centimetres in one hours and 100 centimetres in one single working days, both of which are close to record-breaking locations. Island geography causes severe rainfall fluctuations from one place to another. Mt Waiale, on Kauai, gets 1,234 centimetres a year, making it one of the humidest places in the whole wide globe, and Waimea, also on Kauai, gets about 50 centimetres a year - but these two places are only 25 kilometres apart.
In contrast to the Pacific Northwest, the highest rainfall on the higher peaks of Hawaii falls at relatively low altitudes, usually between 600 and 1,200m. Hawaii's secluded island landscape, combined with its generally moderate climates and wide range of environments, has resulted in a diverse flora and fauna population.
Several thousand indigenous species are nowhere else to be found; 66 unique species of rural bird have also been found in Hawaii. It is interesting to note that there were no terrestrial animals on the island until the arrival of the people. Hawaii's Polyynesian colony was a part of one of the boldest seasons of humanity's journey across the world.
In open paddleboats, these humans make their way across vast ocean vastness, which separate small groups of islands from each other. Settlements that came to Hawaii 1,000 years ago probably come from the Marquesas, 4,000 kilometres south-west. The island had a kind of pre-Polynesian population, but it was probably taken in by the new arrivals.
Hawaii thus lived in solitary confinement for several hundred years after the second migratory heyday. The Hawaiians consolidated a complex societal organisation in their island hideaway during their isolations. Inherited sovereigns ruled over their people and possessed the whole country. When Europeans found the island in the latter part of the eighteenth centuary, the harmless surroundings helped a population of about 300,000 people.
In 1778, the first Europeans to come to Hawaii, which he called the Sandwich Isles, was Captain James Cook. Slaughtered on the shores of the Great Island, the word of his discoveries quickly became widespread after he reached Europe and North America; it was quickly recognised that the island was the best place to stop to take advantage of North America-Asia trading.
During the 1820' s the North Pacific was occupied by the fishing industries and for the next half centurys the island became the most important recreation and supply centre for cetaceans. At about the same epoch evangelical ministers came to the isles. It was very succesful in its mission work and had a great impact on the island' s inhabitants for many years.
Hawaii's first sugary farm was founded in 1837, although the island only became an important manufacturer after the second half of the 20th centr. Hawaii developed into one of the world's largest exporters of sugars between that period and the end of the nineteenth. Hawaiians were used for a while, but their dwindling numbers provided nothing but the manpower they needed.
Between 1852 and 1930, for example, factory farmers from Asia imported 400,000 mainly Asiatic farm workers to Hawaii. The Hawaiians made up over 95 per cent of the population of the island in 1852. Until 1900 they were less than 15 per cent of the population of just over 150,000, while almost 75 per cent were Eastern.
From 1930 the American continent became the major resource for new inhabitants in Hawaii. By 1910, only about one in five Hawaiians was of Hawaiian descent (known as Caucasians in Hawaii). Today, almost 40 per cent of the population of the state is either Caspian or partly Castilian. Hawaii's population dropped from its pre-European high to a low of 54,000 in 1876 before beginning to increase again.
In the early 1920s the population of the state had peaked at the pre-European level, and in 1988 the state had 1. Due to migration, Hawaii's population is growing well above the US averages. Predominantly pre-European populations were scattered across the island, with the Big Island inhabited by most population.
The population of the island has been concentrating on Oahu ever since the discoveries of Europe. Hawaii's politics were tumultuous in the 120 years after Cook's invention. Between 1785 and 1795, a powerful chieftain, Kamehameha, removed the various empires of the isles. In the nineteenth and nineteenth centuries, the increasing power of the Missionary Church in Hawaii became a deceit.
However, the growing part played by the Americans made it unavoidable that if Hawaii lost its sovereignty, it would be invaded by the United States. The number and impact of US crop growers raised their discontent with the hawaiian state. Hawaii was not scheduled to join the state at the date of Annexion, and it was not until 1959, after Alaska became a member of the EU, that Hawaii became the fiftieth state in the world.
About half of the country in Hawaii is in the hands of the Hawaiian state, with the state, not the German state, owning 80 cents. The largest part of it lies in the agricultural less sought-after parts of the island, the largest part in woodland reservations and nature preserves. The majority of German states are located mainly in the Big Island and Maui or in the Oahu and Kahoolawe area.
Seven eighteenths of all Hawaiian plots are in the possession of only 39 proprietors, each owning 2,000ha or more. Each of six different property managers controls more than 40,000 ha of a combined area of around 1,040,000 ha. Small units of residential property are most common in Oahu, but even there the bigger property holders own more than two-thirds of the area.
Nearly two of the isles, Lanai and Niihau, are almost entirely owned by a sole proprietor, and on all other isles ('Oahu'), large land owners own about 90 per cent of all private possession. The majority of these large estates originated in the free running exploitations on the nineteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The country was previously wholly owned by the monarchs. The country fell into the control of non-Hawaiian individuals during the fall of the Empire. As a result, it has been hard to disrupt property relations, which has resulted in high soil value and a high population densities.
Candy and later pineapple drove the Hwaiian industry for many centuries after the eighteen-sixties. Up until the end of the nineteen-forties, the country's economic activity was largely agrarian. At the moment only every 30th of Hawaii' workers are engaged in farming. Hawaii, however, still accounts for a significant proportion of the world's total annual Zuckerernte (sugar harvest) and is the world's biggest pineapple producer, producing around 650,000 tonnes of pineapple per year.
Bridging the gap, Oahu's GDP figures are overwhelming, with more than 80 per cent of the state's GDP located there. Farming continues to play a major part on the other isles. The Big Island is home to cattle and sugars, as well as sugars and pineapple on Maui and Kauai.
When the agricultural sector receded and ceased to dominate the Hwaiian economies, its place was initially taken by the state. In recent years, public spending has risen more or less in line with the overall economic expansion, while one-third of all expenditure has been maintained. The majority of this comes from the army, which owns almost 25 per cent of Oahu, which includes the country around Pearl Harbor, one of the most beautiful ports in the Pacific.
Almost one in four of Hawaii an workers are employees of the army, and together the army staff and its relatives account for over 10 per cent of Hawaii's population. It is also the country's biggest civil employers. The tourist industry has become the most important growing economic area and has increased its contribution to the island's overall revenue from 4 per cent in 1950 to over 30 per cent today.
Hawaii's large archipelagos are part of the same state, they have similar geological stories, and they are close together in a huge oceans, but each has its own temper. The city is heavily settled and intensively used, and provides a glimpse of the hectic and confusing pace of the city.
Hawaii, the Great Island, by contrast, has a relatively wide expanse, with large ranges, tall, sparse vulcanoes and large parts of almost untouched soils. The area of its shore is ruled by five giant volcano shields. Kauai, sometimes also known as the Island of Gardens because of its luxuriant exotic flora, is strongly degraded by a landscape of mountain, gorges, rocks and falls.
The Kauai is becoming more and more attractive to visitors because of its tragic natural state. The neighbouring Niihau is in private ownership and is managed as the Niihau Ranch Company. The majority of the few hundred inhabitants are Hawaiian-born. Maui is the second biggest of the island and contrasts the middle plain orchards with the jagged hills on both sides.
Tourism growth along the west coast was intensive, so that Maui recorded the fastest population growth of all eighty years. Nevertheless, the remainder of the island is little altered and thinly settled. The Molokai is half ranch land and half jagged hills.
This is perhaps the least prosperous of the inhabited islands of Hawaii. Both Lanai and Kahoolawe are near Maui.