Hawaii Marine ConservationMPA Hawaii
naumoku?kea is one of three marine monuments to have been awarded an international prize.
Obama's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary is just a droplet in the pan for the environment.
A major act in the fierce death of a country holding the EU Council of Ministers, Barack Obama's choice to establish the world's biggest marine reserve in Hawaii was an opportunity to revive US exceptionality with little disadvantage. "Kevin Chang of the nature conservation group Kua'aina uu'auamo said, "I am in loving family. Hawaiians who have successfully campaigned for Obama's expansion of Papah?naumoku?kea (pronounced Pa-pa-hah-now-mo-koo-ah-keh-ah) monuments are "ecstatic", Chang said.
An auburn and golden shark found off Hawaii was called after Obama - a fitting honour given that George W. Bush and his deputy chairman Dick Cheney have to divide their name with two sibroids. It now covers more than 580,000 square mile of the Pacific Ocean and contains a repository of 7,000 different birdlife, among them 14m of sea birds, the vulnerable turtles and the vulnerable Hwaiian black seabird .
One of the finishing touch to Obama's heritage, his design surprises some in Hawaii with its pace, eliciting nagging from the Hawaiian fisheries community, but is in line with the state embracement of Cumpo, a creative history that framed the oceans as so important that it is seen as an expansion of the country.
However, the vast extension of the marine reservation - three time larger than California - has also shown how little of the world's seas are sheltered. Only 4% of the entire area of the ocean, about the same size as Russia, is in some way preserved, far less than the part of the country that is divided into different natural parc.
Environmentists and government officials are late in clarifying how much of the seas should be withdrawn from industrial fisheries or mines, with a target of 30% to be discussed this weeks International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conference in Hawaii. lands, especially rich ones, crawl to make up for the protection of the seas.
Palau Chairman Tommy Remengesau could not stand a punching blow when he told the IUCN about the 193,000 square kilometre protected area surrounding the small Pacific state. In spite of its part in helping much of the world' s population, the oceans remain a largely uncharted territory, used primarily for short-term plundering of foods or summer paddling.
And even marine researchers say that the oceans, an area covering 70% of our globe, hold persistent secrets. We' re not sure how long the great albacore shark, the most famous shark in the whole wide open space, lives and where they stay most of the year. It is only 80 years ago that researchers, first in a concave sphere sunk into the oceans, took a close look at what was happening in the high seas.
We have even now studied only a small part of the world' s seas. We know that the Atlantic rhododendron provides about 50% of the air we breath, that its waters are what we consume through transpiration, and that its marine life feeds half the world' s population.
Hadn' t the sea wiped up almost all the additional warmth we add to the air, we would have roasted. Putting it plainly, we wouldn't last long without the seas. On the other hand, we have plundered the sea of catfish such as Atlantic coalfish and tunas to the point where they have practically vanished, and the shark whose flippers are cut off to make broth, whose body rots in the hot summer or just sinks to the bottom of the sea.
We' ve crossed the sea with about five trillion sheets of plastics, and our GHG emission has altered the chemistry of the waters to such an extent that corals wither and marine life becomes truly crazy. Last year, the oceans gave the equivalent of a desperate cry.
In the Eastern Pacific, a huge blop of hot Pacific hot tubs saw blind worms and European adders rising in Alaska and alien fish such as marlins and seahorns gliding into California seas. "They are so big that they seem inviolable, but only in the last ten years have we realised that they are much more vulnerable than we imagined," said Brad Ack, director of the US WWF Pacific Campaign.
As soon as the ocean issues are grasped, they seem unsolvable. Nearly everything influences the ocean, from the waste we discard, through the fertiliser we apply to the plants, to the sunscreens we apply to fend off the sun's radiation. Nature conservators therefore expect to facilitate their embassy with the objective of 30% protection area.
This will not tackle the problem of climatic changes, but it would help cut down over-fishing, which has exhausted a third of global fishing, slow down exploration and exploitation of the ocean floor and promote measures to control the contamination that is flowing from the shore to the ocean. Wilson EO, the famous environmentalist, said we should strive for "the whole gun game" and try to save almost all marine life by taking half the world's seas out of circulation.
That would be done by prohibiting deep-sea fisheries - the vast expanses of the uncontrolled oceans beyond the sole industrial areas that end 200 inland. And Wilson has also spoken out in favour of a "half for her, half for us" protection onshore. Considering that one in five of all the seafood that ends up on the table is taken under illegal protection, Wilson's bullish attitude towards a dramatic rise in no-take areas seems to be inappropriate.
However, the UN is at last tackling the issue of the high seas - a suppurating failure of the Maritime Law Treaties concluded three centuries ago, which clarifies the right of nation states along their coasts but has done little, as opponents claim, to protect the world' s oceans. She envisioned World Heritage designation for areas such as the World Heritage Site "White Shop Cafe", the only known meeting place for Great white sharks in the Northern Pacific, the Atlantis Bank, a submerged fossile Indian Ocean Isle and the Sargasso Ocean, a prolific area in the Northern Atlantic where a whirling top provides a concentrations of seaweed that is essential for the life of marine herds.
One of the more tasty destinations may be to conserve certain marine bio-diversity hot spots, such as the colourful reef or mountains of sea - giant submarine volcanoes that are a haven for old and migratory animals such as seaweed. A number of researchers emphasize quality before quality. More than 90% of the additional warmth released into the oceans by humans, such as coal-fired electricity production, transport and farming, has been absorbed by the oceans.
Seas were not always generous and welcoming to live in - most organisms were extinct about 200m years ago because the ocean was a poisonous pot - and researchers say that circumstances are now changing unfavourably for many marine animals. However, even if we understand how the ocean is damaging shrimp and crab, how corruption tree nurseries are vanishing and how sea water is spreading to our communities, off-shore exploration for hydrocarbons, gases and mineral resources is continuing undiminished.
US Home Office secretary Sally Jewell tells the IUCN conference that the topic of global warming is "the most urgent nowadays. It is not yet clear whether the seas have bottomed out and will disintegrate entirely. However, even if there is a radical reduction in emission levels, researchers are arguing that more areas of conservation are needed for the changes that are already underway.