Gardner Island HawaiiHawaiian Island of Gardner
coated Gardner Pinnacles. Gardner Pinnacles (Hawaiian: P?h?honu) are two sparse rocks encircled by a cliff and situated in the northwestern islands of Hawaii at 24°59W? 167°59?N?W / 24.99889°N 167.99944°W / 24.99889; -167.99944. Situated 511 sea-mile (.946 km) to the north-west of Honolulu and 108 mile (.94 nmi;.174 km) from the French frigate shoals.
There are over 600,000 hectares of coastline (2,400 km2) on the area. The first discovery of Gardner Pinnacles was on June 2, 1820 by the US under the command of Captain Joseph Allen. Gardner Pinnacles are home to some of the most abundant marine life found anywhere else in northwestern Hawaii and have more types of corals than two cliffy neighbours to the South: Necker Island and Nihoa.
There are many bugs on the island, and one scientist claimed to have found two new types of cobwebs. Being a protected area, Gardner Pinnacles is taboo even for the army, although it carried out an unauthorised landings in 1961 or 1962 and blown away the tip of the outbreak to provide an airstrip for the Hawaiian HIRAN site, an attempt to pinpoint the position of the area's isles with great accuracy for navigation purposes.
Neighbouring islands/reefs in the archipelago are French frigate shoals in the south-east and Maro Reef in the north-west.
Nikumaroro, or Gardner Island, is part of the Phoenix Islands, Kiribati, in the Pacific Northwest. Nikumarororo is about 7.5 km long and 2.5 km broad. There is a very shallow sea behind the island and the only place to anchor is at the far end of the island, opposite the remains of a mid-20th centruy settlement in a UK-colonising town.
In the past, the island was inhabited at different periods, but today it is deserted. Nikumaroro's lack of freshwater has proved to be a problem for its inhabitants in the past and directly contributing to the collapse of a UK colonisation plan for the island from 1938 to 1963. In 1937 Amelia Earhart tried her international trip, but Fred Noonan, navigation officer, and they vanished after the aircraft had abandoned Lae, New Guinea, and flew to Howland Island.
Nikumarororo Island (then known as Gardner Island) is located about 640 km south-east of Howland Island. The Navy searched several neighboring isles, among them Gardner Island, for them and their aircraft. After she disappeared a few month a small ship also came to Gardner Island, but found nothing. Recent skeleton remnants were found on the island in 1938, but they were not associated with Earhart's escape.
Between 1944 and 1945, the United States Coast Guard ran a LORAN navigation system with 25 crew members at the south-eastern tip of Gardner, which installed an aerial system, corrugated iron cabins and several smaller buildings. In the mid-1950s the island's populations peaked at around 100, but in the early 60s periodical droughts and an instable fresh water lentil had frustrated the fighting settlement.
Nikumarororo (together with Manra and Orona) was evicted by the UK authorities in 1963. His inhabitants were evicted to the Solomon Islands by the Brits, and in 1965 Gardner was formally deserted. The United Kingdom gave self-government in 1971 to the Gilbert Islands, which gained total autonomy as Kiribati in 1979.
In the same year, following a recent investigation of the island for possible weapon tests, the United States surrendered any claim against Gardner under the Tarawa Treaty. It has been formally re-named Nikumaroro, a name based on Gilbert's legend and used by the colonists in the 1940' and 1950'. Accessed May 15, 2015.
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Recalled: October 25, 2009. Recalled: Recalled: October 25, 2009. Richard Pyle, Group completes latest quest for Amelia Earhart, Associated Press (August 2, 2007). "Have you found Amelia Earhart's vanity case? "Resurrected Amelia Earhart's phalanges? Recalled: "Amelia Earhart's quest for fragments of bones that are ambiguous. Recalled: Zwick 2012: "Indeed, Gillespie's quest, the way in which his talented acting has cast a shadow over the doubtfulness of his findings and long chances of succeeding, may be the most appropriate homage to Earhart's celebration of his centenary.
"Hillary Clinton, a lonely scientist, and the quest for Amelia Earhart." Archeology and the Destiny of Amelia Earhart. archaeology.about.com. Recalled: October 25, 2009. by Nikumaroro - The Last Expansion of the British Empire, tight. org, August 1, 2000, accessed October 14, 2008.
Recalled: Recalled: Polynesia and the Hawaiian chain. Honolulu, Hawaii: Crouch, Thomas D. "In search of Amelia Earhart. Find Amelia: The true story of Earhart's disappearance. Islands and people: Vol. IV Marine Affairs, 573, Information gathered by the Department of the Navy on islands, reefs, shoals, etc. in the Pacific (29 January 1835).
Stripple, Richard G. "Amelia researching: This is a detailed summary for the serious researcher about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart. The Wikimedia Commons has got Nikumaroro on it.