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She has always liked reading, but as a kid she never thought of it as a sideline. Soon I realised that I needed a text that matched the images, and the more I write, the more I realised that I liked to write as much as or more than draft.
Maybe that's why so many of my textbooks deal with science." Today Arnold is the award-winning writer of more than 100 children's novels. Living in Los Angeles with her neuro-scientist husband, she is teaching at UCLA Extension.
Postcranial and cranial skeletons from Easter Island - Rupert Ivan Murrill
Postcranial and cranial skeletal remnants from Easter Island were first released in 1968. The Minnesota Archive Edition uses state-of-the-art electronic technologies to make long disused works available again, and is unchanged from the University of Minnesota Press's previous work. In 1955-1956, an archeological exploration of Easter Island and the East Pacific was organised and funded by Thor Heyerdahl, the Kon-Tiki Norway ethnologist.
Though Professor Murrill was not a member of the mission, he was asked to examine and analyse the anthropological aspects of the skeleton found by the mission during Easter Island missions. These finds shed a clear light on the origins of the Easter Islanders.
It is unlikely that a Negroid migratory (possibly from Melanesia) has anticipated a Polish to Easter Island and, based on his assessment of the type grouping system, he proposes that the Polish and Native Indians might come from the same genetic stock in East Asia.
Real South Pacific: From Tahiti to Easter Island
Hawa-ha. Pitcairn. It'?s Rape Nui. Those are some of the words that evoke the whole South Seas adventures and romanticism. Spread over 3000 nautical mile of oceans, these isles have long been a haven for the dreamy and the outcast, the bold and the depressed. I was fortunate enough to be in Seattle with the Zegrahm Expeditions in 2015 to see them all and more on an expedition through the real South Pacific.
It has been acclaimed by authors and performers such as Herman Melville, Paul Gauguin and Robert Louis Stevenson, who have painted a picture of lush tropics that has never disappeared. It' also been thoroughly detected. It' not a island of dreams anymore. Drinking cold beverages (yes, they may have included umbrellas) on the resort's shore, I looked at the island of Moorea, which rises like a sight above the lagoon's greenery.
In Tahiti, as on all populated Pacific Island, indigenous bird populations and other game are in distress due to imported carnivores, competition and disease and the depletion of their habitat. One of the main goals of this journey was to visit desert archipelagoes where we could still enjoy the splendour of the rugged South Pacific.
The Caledonian Sky, our 100-person vessel, was fitted with agile zeodiacs that allowed us to touch down on even the remotest antolls - provided the tide and the waves of the sea worked together. You could also go for a snorkel or mask and discover the South Pacific reef.
On the next morning the Caledonian sky came from its transit across the Pacific after it had started from Fiji. On the group's large island, Hiva Oa, the artist Paul Gauguin retired in 1901 after he decided that Tahiti was becoming too civilised. Today, these archipelago still live up to our dream of the untouched South Pacific: verdant hills that rise from the dark purple ocean, dispersed towns behind palm trees in secluded bays, welcoming humans - and frighteningly sculpted tikis that bear witness to a wartime past.
There are less than 10,000 inhabitants on the island and most travellers come with their own sailing boats. On the three biggest isles, Nuku Hiva, Hiva Oa and Fatu Hiva, we saw no other visit. During our first shore leave, Nuku Hiva, we were spoiled with a typical dancing on a floor framed with tikies.
On Hiva Oa, the tomb of Paul Gauguin was visited. It was built of coarsely chopped boulders of stone and stands in clear contradiction to the primitive, white-washed tombs of the other Europeans in the small tombs. However, the most indestructible remembrance of Hiva Oa happened off-shore when we all had the chance to go snorkelling with a large collection of mantas.
On Fatu Hiva Island in the North, we moored in the Bay of the Virgins, often described by sailors as the most stunning in the whole wide open - and who am I to fight with sailors? As most of us were exploring the small town of Hana Vave, a small group of birdwatchers were climbing into a circle of zodiacs and heading southwards to the next vale along the water.
It is assumed that the Fatu Hiva Monarch counts less than 25 grown-ups with five or less brood-couples. Endangered by imported felines and rat species, they only live through the nesting shelter of the Société d'Ornithologie de Polynésie and the area. The Marquesas and we headed southwards to the Tuamotus Islands, the island's atoll.
Approximately 80 of them are spread like a shattered pearl necklace over a vast area that is almost as large as Western Europe. We landed four times here: at the populated Rangiroa Aylls, Puka Puka and Puka Rua, and uninhabitated Tenararo. Though we were welcomed with sumptuous friendliness on each of the populated isles ( "roasted bread fruit and squid, anyone?"), I wanted to see what an unpopulated and rat-free tunnel is like, and so I was sure to be on the first zip-diac to make the furious journey through the waves and over the fringe of Tenararo.
It' important to state both'uninhabited' and'rat-free', as Polish rivals have arrived in almost every corner of the Pacific. Although there is no sustainable habitation, these mammals can destroy native terrestrial birds and sea birds that nest and often cause them to die out. The small Tenararo avatar has somehow managed to escape the attack of rivals and now houses the biggest remaining population of two terrestrial birds found nowhere else than the Tuamotus: the polynesian ground dove and the Tuamotu sandpiper.
They are the only species of sandpiper to breed on reefs. As with most predators on predator-free isles, the stinters were notably gentle and quietly walking around our legs as they nourished the plants, stopping their feeds only to participate in fighting air shows and chase hunts. It' s been a pleasure to see these migratory species that are so well suited to the challenge of their reef turtles and still live on one of the most pristine isles on earth.
Mangareva, the biggest of the Gambier Isles, is situated just southwards of Tuamotus, the most southern island of France. Though they are seen as part of the Tuamotus in administrative terms, they are vulcanic "high islands", very different from the low eiderdown between which we sailed. A thousand years ago, however, it was a large Polyynesian commercial centre and sent travellers to build colonies at least as far as the island of Pitcairn.
Pitcairn isles. I had always considered Pitcairn as a unique island before I made this journey. Just think of my little wonder when I found out that there were four Pitcairn islands: The Pitcairn itself (the only "high island"), the atols of Oeno and Ducie and the elevated "Makatea"-Island Henderson (more about this in one minute).
One year they depart their unbelievably remote island for an even more remote one, where they spend a whole weekend camping to escape the turbulence of Pitcairn. At the top of the island - as shallow as a hotcake - is a thick bush vegetation that grows from rugged fossilized rock.
That may not seem like your concept of a South Seas paradise, but for the biologist it is truly exceptional - one of only two elevated antolls in the globe whose eco-systems are relatively untouched (the other is Aldabra in the Indian Ocean). Though Henderson, with its confined freshwater, was never home to large enduring populations, it was often frequented by Polynesians who destroyed at least three native doves before the island was spotted by Europeans.
Those early patrons also took along Polyynesian mice. In spite of Hoculan extermination in 2011, which destroyed 99.9% of the island's population, it is thought that 50-100 survived. The fertility of the mice is such that these remaining animals have now completely resettled the island. Naturally, everyone wanted to enter Pitcairn by themselves.
Pitcairn was selected by the rebels on HMS Bounty as the island where they were least detected by the Royal Navy. Covering less than 2 km2, Pitcairn is a patch of country more than 3000 leagues from New Zealand in the East and Chile in the West.
Pitcairn is very scenic, a sheer island with fruitful reddish earth and verdant rolling countryside that rise from the deep ocean. Today there are only about 50 inhabitants living here, and there is a worry that in one or two generations no one could be there, as the young folk are moving more and more to New Zealand and do not come back.
However, during our stay we were welcomed, proud to see the HMS Bounty Anker and the small Pitcairn Bounty Museums and had the chance - which we liked to use - to buy Pitcairn T-shirts, caps, woodcarvings and stamp. One group of us climbs to the top of the island and looks out over the Pacific Ocean, which seemed to begin right at our feet and extends in all directions to the sweeping skyline.
Raffae Nui (Easter Island). I have travelled around the globe, and I have never been anywhere so mysterious and full of omens as on Easter Island. It' s indeed difficult to see the destiny of Rafa Nui without a shower, the kind of supersticious shower that means someone walked on your tomb.
These naked bone from the story of Rafa Nui are well known. It was populated by Polynesians from Mangareva (1600 nautical mile away ) or the Marquesas (2000 nautical mile away) sometime around 1000 AD. Arriving on a sub-tropical island surrounded by a wood of the biggest palms in the whole wide expanse, where at least 5 kinds of terrestrial and large sea bird populations live.
After reaching such an unbelievably remote and minute stretch of land (the island is about 63 sq. km), the travellers seem never to have gone away again - there is no sign of interaction between the Rapa Nui tribe and other human beings until the Netherlandish discoverer Jacob Roggeveen tripped across the island on Easter Sunday 1722.
As is often said, it would be perfectly reasonable for the residents of Rapa Nui to believe that they are the only human beings on earth. Insular as they were, the island' s residents created one of the most striking and imaginative civilizations in the underworld. For 500 years - apparently soon after their advent - the Easter Islands sculptured almost 900 large rock mai, greatly extended and stylised editions of the Marquesas, Hawaii and other Polynesian sculptures of the statue of Theiki.
Rapa Nui's men had no metallic implements, no wheels and no draught beasts. Environmental indications suggest that logging on the island (deforestation for agricultural and rat activities and demand for tree trunks) is leading to a reduction in precipitation on the island, as well as to degradation and hunger.
Until 1650 the Rapa Nui logging was completed, as shown by the loss of palm tree pollens from the island's silt. Together with the adverse impact on the environment on shore, this means that the Easter Islanders were really trapped: they no longer had the opportunity to build deep-sea rafts for angling or traveling.
Fewer than a hundred years later, the first vessel in Europe arrives, and there is proof that his brief stay was sufficient to get fatal illnesses to Easter Island. Following a spell of seclusion and prearrangement, the participants had to descend an 800-foot high rock to the ocean, swimm to the island, scale their wavy-washed cliffs, salvage a terns' eggs, return, climb up the rock - and hand them over uninterrupted.
It' s difficult for me to believe in all the detail, but it seems undeniable that the main attraction of the contest was certainly the swim to the island for the eggs. Easter Island's history is narrated by Jared Diamond in his novel Collapse as a dramatically convincing precautionary narrative.
It' s difficult to prevent a parallel between the island of Easter, which is so remote and limited, and the planet Earth, which is so remote and so inattentive. Maybe Diamond makes a too simplified case - that was certainly the view of our distinguished ship archeologist Annette Kuhlem, who did a lot of field work on Easter Island.
However, her point - that Rapa Nui's destiny was not as tragic or unique as Diamond said - seemed even more suspicious to me. Anette thinks that the Easter Island's demise is not due to environmental degradation caused by religion, but to the foreseeable impact of population overload and clan rivalry that has been seen in many other places in Polynesia.
Ultimately, it was the complete insulation of Easter Island that made these events even more radical. Nearly all the mai on Rapa Nui are on the coast, with their backs to the ocean, this unintelligible immeasurability that looks into the interior. The windswept stillness of Easter Island, full of foreboding, is something I will always have with me now.