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Insider opinions on Samoa's commerce and healthcare sector

Public BMC. This document aims to present the opinions of the main actors on the possible impact of Samoa's free economic and social development talks and treaties on Samoa's well being. These were carried out in New Zealand and Samoa. In spite of possible benefits in terms of healthcare and prosperity through trading activity (employment, rising incomes, innovative healthcare and female empowerment), the main actors were increasingly concerned about the impact of trading on public healthcare, diet and the rate of noncommunicable illness.

However, companies and sales agents felt that the advantages of commerce prevailed over the dangers to the people of Samoa's good and bad-being. More research using new methods is needed to identify both the chances and dangers for trafficking as a means of improving the public of SamoA. Samoa, a growing Pacifica country, has long regarded commerce as a necessary and unavoidable means of economic growth and reducing poverty[1].

It is in line with the world' s free trading movements and advocates a greater emphasis on commerce as a means of increasing the prosperity of countries and individuals[2]. This document presents an assessment of the opinions of a Samoa and New Zealand commercial, community-based, and New Zealand officials on the possible impact of free Trade Agreement on Samoa's population.

Free international economic and social development policies have been criticised for undermining individuals' approach to these essential factors of good healthcare (healthy nutrition, accessible medicines). He and his peers reflect on the effects of globalized commerce on low and medium incomes and their accessibility to accessible, nutritional foods.

At the heart of this arguement is that in a time of worldwide nutritional uncertainty, the available accessible and reasonable dietary choices are becoming the real yardstick for growth and commerce, which is the cornerstone of this debate[3]. A member of the Pacific Islands Forum, Samoa, like the other Pacific Islands (PICs), is a member of PICTA (Pacific Islands' Commerce Agreement), which serves as a springboard to the New Zealand and Australian liberalization agreements.

Two major free Trade Accords are currently under negotiation in the Pacific Islands: PACER Plus is currently a (non-legal) outline convention that provides a basis for further trading relationships between the Partnerships, Australia and New Zealand. Pacific Islands are urged by the Pacific Islands Forum office to support the continued advantages of expanding trading partners within the area.

Although the Pacific Forum is expected to expand trading links, there is also agreement among Heads of State and Government on the need for broader consultations and impact assessments of the ratification of PICTA and PACER Plus. In the course of this survey, Samoa concluded three free WTO Free Trade Agreement with the US, Canada and Uruguay to qualify for WTO entry and was granted WTO entry on 17 December 2011[5].

Samoa's changes in commercial politics. The concern of the healthcare industry about commercial treaties and their impact on human security mirrors a failure of confidence in a non-transparent and non-legislative exercise. This type of agreement binds the country to a set of longstanding, rigid and complicated commitments that limit the government's ability to react with a political response[8].

The protection and promotion of public health is still regarded as a prime task of governance, but there is still little practical proof of this link between the existence of global trading arrangements and the results of public health[9]. Noncommunicable disease, pollution, access to medicines and trafficking in goods and ser-vices are at the heart of concern voiced so far by healthcare professionals[10].

To protect the population from unintended damage, it is essential that the Pacific negotiations leaders, and Samoa included, are conscious of these effects on health[11]. This brief account provides an overview of the advantages and opportunities of the liberalisation of trade for the independent state of Samoa. In Samoa and New Zealand, the main actors in the areas of governance, business and/or healthcare have been selected through the use of a network of professionals.

Most of the feedbacks took place in June and July 2011 and were carried out using a semi-structured survey report in New Zealand and Samoa, respectively. Important informants were interviewed to deliver immediate information on both the variety and similarities of perceptions of trade, commercial bargaining and their longer-term effects on Samoa's outcomes.

At the beginning of the survey, a listing of the most important stakeholder positions, areas of responsibility and/or experiences in the areas of commerce and/or healthcare was drawn up. It has been drawn up to allow a balance to be struck between the different industries, taking into account the viewpoints of New Zealand and Samoa. A comprehensive listing of possible issues related to general commerce and public healthcare with a special emphasis on the Pacific area, namely Samoa, has been established.

The focus was on policy related trading matters, PACER Plus, the impact of trading on humanity, the roles of local and multinational organizations in overseeing trading activity and promoting the benefits of them. Commerce as part of a comprehensive business policy for Samoa (e.g. There is a belief that the liberalisation of commerce is "inevitable" and that protected economy must be reformed, otherwise they will fight for their survival.

Are you in agreement or disagreement and why?); Trade as revenue (e.g. What are the advantages of a free trade zone for Samoa and how can these advantages be perceived by most, if not the entire people?

New Zealand's trading partnership ( "What are New Zealand's special functions or areas of responsibility in your opinion towards Asian nations such as Samoa to make sure that free trade agreements are in the best interests of its economy and people? Are there any local and/or non-governmental organizations that you consider to be important actors in order to make sure that free economic agreements (especially from a public security point of view) are of benefit to Samoa?

Abstracts of the interviewees' information (the most important comments were taken from the interviewee at the time and after the interviewee to review the recorded audio). The results of the study are presented below, but should not be considered to represent the opinions of other stakeholders in Samoa or the Pacific. There were seven detailed feedbacks - four with New Zealand executives (one New Zealand Executive Director, one NGO Executive Director, one NGO Executive Director, one NGO Executive Director for Economy and Commerce and one Minister of the Government) and three in Samoa (CEO of a local NGO, one Executive Economic Director and one high-ranking Executive Director).

Texts from the most important informants' interventions were analyzed using an induction topical analytical methodology and are presented in the following chart, which reflects the logic of the dominating topics (Table 1). The theoretically required liberalisation of commerce - to allow or promote Samoa's proactive involvement in the world economic system - was seen as an inevitable result for Samoa.

There were different views on how this involvement in commerce could be reflected; some thought that Samoa should fully support the tradition of liberalisation of trade centred on the WTO. As an alternative, other actors have the importance of self-determination and safeguards that must be integrated into commercial treaties so that they do not limit the vision and policy of the area.

Samoa's desire to join the WTO led to conflicting opinions among the parties involved. While not all were able to commented on Samoa's current membership standing, there was a clear differentiation between those working in commercial and economic areas who supported the move (towards FreeTrading) and others who voiced serious concern about the associated risk.

Stakeholder discussions focused on the possible stakes Samoa would face in competition with the larger players: The PACER Plus (Pacific Arrangement on Closer Economics Relations) talks started by Australia and New Zealand in August 2009 and will not be continued until November 2013. The Pacer Plus was widely acknowledged as the deal that departs from the classic principle of aggressiveness in negotiating and protecting Australia's and New Zealand's interests towards more of an economical developing area.

A New Zealand government minister pointed out that the needs of the Pacific are crucial in these negotiations: Generally speaking, stakeholders' opinions on the PACER Plus talks were either opportunist or high-risk. The former campers felt that New Zealand and Australia had less to win than the Pacific states with PACER Plus, as there are already zero fares for Pacific exports to Australia and New Zealand, both having significantly bigger market shares than the Pacific.

Some were less upbeat about the motivation of Australia and New Zealand and were skeptical about the developmental idiom and the potentials for a game: "I'm not sure if we're going to make it: Some were less reassured and felt that the ongoing talks were superfluous due to other issues that had to be tackled first, such as the Fiji authorities' ping: the Fiji government:

Commerce as a prerequisite for reaching our own personal objectives? The parties generally considered that while exports of goods are a possible source of economic activity and revenue for Samoa, technological and capability-enhancing investments are needed to reap the advantages of the commercial relationship. One participant described the advantages of investments in the expansion of the Samoa exports business as an example of a prosperous exports business:

A number of main actors felt that Samoan export would not be significantly favoured by the FTA, but that it could become an important source of revenue. The only way to achieve this indirectly positive outcome, however, was to reinvest the money in the Samoan economies through transfers. Consequences of the loss of young people to New Zealand in return for transfers were largely undisputed.

An advocate who thought that opening up certain areas to small scale overseas investment would have the capacity for healthcare professionals, in Samoa include an oncologist. Another shareholder, however, could not see how Samoa could create an incentive for skilled labour to work in Samoa if there are higher wages abroad.

It is the apparent suspense between the two points of view that reinforces the belief in the pledge and idealology of the advantages of world commerce. We also emphasized the growth of our healthcare and healthcare staff through exchanges with Australia and New Zealand. Persuading Samoa's healthcare workers to take part in including these possibilities in a new treaty was a real scourge.

A number of respondents supported arrangements to promote womens inequality. In Samoa, it was considered an unrecognised economy; therefore, it was necessary for them to react to the economical and politic potentials of them. Increased participation of mothers in a number of areas, as well as the economy, would see these benefits not only from the point of view of growing the economy for a nation but also within the family, which would have a further impact on the well-being of females and other mothers.

The majority of the parties involved recognised that the disappearance of customs duties through trading is a real problem for the Western Balkan states that conclude free Trade Agreement. However, one interested party felt that changes in regulation triggered by commercial treaties contributed to offsetting losses in revenues through tariffs: Deal: a double-edged blade? A number of people have quickly established the connection between trafficking and its effects on human beings, particularly as regards the effects on noncommunicable diseases:

An economic player has committed to the advantages of trading by supporting the value of the options and the responsibility of individuals in regulating dietary preferences. The purpose of this survey was to examine the prospects of both New Zealand and Samoan actors in the healthcare and trading fields for the advantages and threats of free Trade Agreements between the two states.

The results show both real concerns and an optimistic outlook on the possible effects of commercial treaties on Samoa's healthcare outcome. We recognise from the beginning that our assessment does not fully reflect the New Zealand or Samoan Government's view on commerce. In Samoa, commercial questions are very delicate as to what made up the small random sampling; few were willing or felt capable of discussing the commercial questions in detail.

However, our focussed surveys showed deep concerns about the dependence on commerce as a tool to achieve sustained healthcare benefits in Samoa. It called into question the crucial importance of such an informed and engaged commercial negotiating exercise, in particular with regard to the technological detail of the negotiating exercise and the impact presented during the commercial negotiating it had.

There was also great disquiet about the importance of new capability arrangements providing a concrete stimulus to help Samoa identify and address public safety threats arising from FTAs. Investigations have been carried out into the advantages of participation in New Zealand's trading talks, and there was inevitable cause for doubt among some and firm hopes among others.

Representatives of commerce and industry were more optimistic about the retail industry's ability to improve commercial performance, and thus improve Samoa's healthcare performance, as expected. Those in favour of healthcare were less optimistic; past experience has failed to deliver the advantages that had been pledged, especially in smaller fragile economies[12]. Perhaps these opinions signaled the need to invest more in training and commitment to find out what it means to small islands of development, where the chances are and where the risks and warnings actually ring.

It is also mirrored in a Samoa mandated verification to identify the need for further developments and the pressures on PACER Plus trading negotiations[13]. A further significant possible benefit for Samoa is the possibility of raising the labour force participation rate of female workers, such as the Womens in Business and Social Initiative in Apia.

Indications are that the advantages of enabling a woman to retain a job and earn an incomes have a potential flow-on effect for the well-being of the woman and for other members of her familiy, which supports growth and equality of humanity in low-resource environments such as Samoa. Some of the world' s leading players seemed to see the passion or mere resolve to see Samoa thriving outweigh its adverse effects on Samoa, particularly in terms of humanity.

Inadequate confidence in the value of free economic relations for low and medium incomes, often demonstrated by the selected presentation of cases of economic prosperity (e.g. China and India), is increased due to the absence of comparative evidence of adverse effects. The migration continues to undermine the objectives of rural areas; the encouragement of offshore jobs is unavoidably contributing to the regional scourge.

In addition, there is the drop in customs duties due to the signature of commercial treaties and WTO membership. The Samoa administration uses the fares to finance its healthcare and educational budget, and a shortfall would mean a decrease in spending on these key public services[14].

Because of the mandatory character of commercial treaties, there is little scope for policies to safeguard and encourage the production of safer local foods. Increases in smoking and drinking, most of which are imports, have disastrous consequences for the public's wellbeing. There has been a shift in the issue of accountability for the impact of commerce on public health between those (corporate) actors who have given priority to the need for greater ownership and those (especially the healthcare sector) who have recognized the need for companies or governments to take account ability in the creation of an environment that encourages sound decision-making.

Like in most of the other European Union member states, Samoa's responsibilities for public healthcare are discussed along a continent of choices for its citizens on the one hand and with regard to regional, domestic and/or globalisation. Increased activity in promoting good nutritional habits and good nutrition is likely to enable customers to make sound choices, but manufacturers of these commodities will operate in an aggressively marketplace.

Samoa's negotiation processes for commercial partnership were advisory, informative and independent for some people. Others have been affected in part by pressure from traders and policy drivers such as the donor-recipient relations between New Zealand and Samoa. Self-sufficiency in itself is a yardstick for a country's well-being, and commercial policy that threatens its self-government is seen by some whistleblowers as a detrimental effect of commercial relations.

The recent removal by Samoa of the prohibition of turkeys' tail to comply with the WTO's strict requirements has been quoted by some as an example of this commitment. The PACER Plus talks were judged differently by the informers; some were convinced of a development-promoting priority that benefits Samoa and ensures an improved outcome in terms of healthcare, while others were less certain that a consistent trading arrangement would be reached between Samoa and New Zealand and Australia.

With Samoa's entry into the World Economic Organization in May 2012, even stricter government controls and research are needed to demonstrate the effects not only on the increase in global investments but also on people' s wellbeing. It is important to examine carefully the trading regulations and the effects of the signature of trade accords, especially where choices and compromise that start by creating opportunity and prosperity but accidentally cause inequality and increasing human and fabric tension.

In view of the fast and constantly evolving trading environment, these measures should be taken earlier rather than later. Ministry of Finance of Samoa. Samoa 2012-2016 Strategy for Development: Increasing Global Production for Sustainability. http://www.mcit.gov.ws/Portals/0/Publications/Policy/SDS%2020202012%20-%202016_English%20version. pdf, Access 2 April 2014. The NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Commerce. IMMOAUSTRIA signs WTO treaties.

Samoa administration. Commercial Integrative Diagnostics Survey, Volumes I and II. This is Soni N, Harries B, Zinner-Toa B. In response to the consequences of the reform of the Forum countries.

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