Its name also relates to the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty, the dynasties of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who in the dynasty and politics of Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth century were the most important rulers. On 12 November 1826, the Duchy was founded when the Court of the Saxon King Friedrich Augustus issued the Treaty of Hildburghausen for the "Gothaic Partition", the comprehensive reorganisation of the Dukedoms of Ernesto.
Following the demise of the Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg line, the Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen traded his duchy for that of Saxony-Altenburg. For this purpose, the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld was granted the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg, the districts of Königsberg and Sonnefeld von Sachsen-Hildburghausen and the plots of Callenberg and Gauerstadt von Sachsen-Meiningen. At that time, the Principality of Lichtenberg an der Nahe had already belonged to the Duchy of Coburg for ten years.
Ernest III, the ruler of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, had been granted it in 1816 by the Congress of Vienna for the support of the Allies in their fight against France. Because of the great distances from Coburg and the riots at the Hambach Festival, the Duke had to sell the Principality to Prussia in 1834.
The dukedom of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha, the recently established dukedom of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha was at first a dual dukedom governed by Ernest III as Duke Ernest I in a single person, but only with one voice in the Bundesrat. In 1826, the chance to unite the two dukedoms was not there. According to the Basic Law of 1852, the dukedoms were integrated into a politically and realistic unity.
The dukedoms' later attempted mergers collapsed in 1867 because the Gotha state parliament did not want to take over the higher public debt of Coburg and in 1872 because of the question of the management of the entire CDU. On 3 May 1852, the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha was given a state charter which had adopted essential parts of the basic constitutional right from the statutes of the Frankfurt Parliament.
In the Bundesrat in Berlin, where she had her headquarters, she kept her operatives, but since 1913, like most other states in Thuringia, she had to go to the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen for replacement. As he had deceased without children, the thrones of the two dukedoms would have been transferred to the manly offspring of his deceased sibling Prince Albert.
Moreover, the constitutions of both dukedoms forbade him to inherit the crown if there were other legitimate manly heritages. But he had already waived his right in favor of his next cousin, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. Alfred became the next Duke of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha.
When the November Revolution ended the empire in 1918, the two dukedoms became two different and sovereign states, the Free State of Coburg and the Republic (later Free State) of Gotha. The Free State of Gotha and the new Free State of Thuringia united on May 1, 1920, followed two month later, on July 1, 1920, by unification with the Free State of Bavaria.
However, for both dukedoms there was a state department in Gotha, but Coburg and Gotha had their own subordinated and almost autonomous departments. He headed Gotha's duchy department, but for both dukedoms he was in charge of state matters, economic and trade policy, justice and the implementation of emperor's legislation.
At Coburg, the municipalities were unable to intervene in Gotha's decision-making in state affairs such as municipal ministries, policing, support for the state churches and training, as well as in the administration of property and finance, and until 1891 also in legal affairs. Both dukedoms' financial situation was fundamentally disjointed.
A joint household was established every four years, especially in dealing financially with the German Reich, even though it affected the two dukedoms' regional and domestic surgeries. Subsidies from the state finances of both duchies were granted in a 7:3 relationship between Gotha and Coburg.
It has two residencies in Gotha and Coburg. For this reason, the entire dukedom, incl. the Hoftheater, had to move twice a year: in summers from Gotha to Coburg, in winters from Coburg to Gotha. In 1840, two almost identically constructed and subsequently preserved courtyard theatres were erected in Gotha (destroyed during the Second World War) and Coburg (now the Coburg State Theatre).
Besides the residenzschlössern Friedenstein in Gotha and Ehrenburg in Coburg, the dukedom's familiy also used Reinhardsbrunn Castle in Gotha, Rosenau and Callenberg Palaces in Coburg and the Jagdschloss Greinburg, Grein, Austria (the last two still in the possession of the dukedomal branches of the House of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha).
The Duchy of Gotha, the duchies of Sachsen-Meiningen and Sachsen-Altenburg and in particular the Grand Duchy of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach could be the only countries to be supported by the Universität Jena. There was no separate college in Coburg. There was no courthouse either.
Coburg had to go to Meiningen for the judiciary. We, Ernst, Duke of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleve and Berg, also Engern and Westphalen, Landgraf in Thuringia, Markgraf zu Meißen, Fürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf zu die Mark and Ravensberg, Lord zu Ravenstein and Tonna, etc.
Ernest, Duke of Saxony-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Kleve and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgraf in Thuringia, Markgraf von Meißen, Fürstlicher Graf von Henneberg, Graf von Mark and Ravensberg, Herr von Ravenstein and Tonna, etc... "The dukedom's financial resources do not allow the retention of a large troop, the forces necessary for the real ministry are withdrawn by convocation in the shape of elections.
" François Velde, "Hausgesetze der Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha", published on 17 June 2008, Heraldica: Themen: