Marlborough Duke of Blenheim. 66 cannons56,000 men, The War of Blenheim (German: Second Struggle at Höchstädt; French: Bataille de Höchstädt), battled on 13 August 1704, was a great war of the Spanish War of Succession. The allies' resounding triumph provided for Vienna's security from the Franco-Bavarian Armed Forces and thus prevented the breakdown of the Great Alliance.
Vienna was at great risk: the Elector of Bavaria and Marshal Marsin's troops in Bavaria were threatening from the western side, and the large Marshal Vendôme armies in the north of Italy represented a serious threat with a possible attack over the Brenner. The Duke of Marlborough recognized the threat and decided to ease the threat to Vienna by invading his troops just outside Bedburg and supporting Emperor Leopold in the Great Alliance.
Marlborough was able to walk from the Netherlands to the Danube in five week's time thanks to a mixture of deceit and skilful management - conceived to hide its real goal from friends and enemies. When Donauwörth was secured on the Danube, Marlborough tried to attack the Elector's and Marsin's armies before Marshal Tallard could send reinforcement through the Black Forest.
But as the Franco-Bavarian commander fought only hesitantly until their number was considered adequate, the duke carried out a looting strategy in Bavaria to enforce the problem. Tactics turned out to be ineffective, but when Tallard came to strengthen the electoral forces, and Prince Eugene came with reinforcement for the Allies, the two troops eventually gathered on the bank of the Danube in and around the small town of Blindheim, where the English "Blenheim" came from.
One of the fights that changed the course of the conflict, which until then had been based on Louis' government, and ended the plan of France to eliminate the Emperor from the conflict. Up to 38,000 people died in France, among them the commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard, who was deported to England.
The Allies had brought Landau and the cities of Trier and Trarbach on the Moselle to France before the end of the 1704 war. This attack never came about because the Grand Alliance had to leave the Moselle to protect Liège from a counterattack from France.
In order to keep the Danube isolated from any Allied interventions, Marshal Villeroi's 46,000 soldiers were to nail the 70,000 British and Flemish armies around Maastricht in the Netherlands, while General de Coigny saved Alsace from surprises with another group. The only personnel immediately available to defend Vienna were the 36,000 men deployed in the lines of Stollhofen to observe Marshal Tallard in Strasbourg; there was also a feeble troop of 10,000 men under Field Marshal Count Limburg Styrum, who watched Ulm.
Marlborough, however, was persuaded of the urgent need - "I am very reasonable to take on much," he had previously wrote to Godolphin, "but if I acted differently, the empire would be destroyed....". 22 ] In any case, Marlborough had pledged to come back to the Netherlands when a France offensive evolved there, transporting his forces on inland ships at a speed of 80 mph.
Underpinned by this pledge (whatever it was worth), the States General approved the opening of the Danes' quota of seven regiments and 22 wing units as reinforcements. 22 ] Marlborough arrived at Ladenburg, in the Neckar and Rhine Plains, and stopped there for three whole nights to take a break from his troop and let the artillery and fleets cloak.
On the next morning, the allied forces swerved away from the Rhine towards the Schwäbische Alb and the Danube. Eugene could not seriously disturb the Tallard Marshal, but the advancement of the Marshal turned out to be pathetically slown. Native Germans, angered by the plunder, aggravated Tallard's troubles and led Mérode-Westerloo to lament - "the furious peasant community murdered several thousand of our men before the Black Forest was over.
"29 ] Tallard had persisted in sieging the small city of Villingen for six whole nights (16-22 July), but left the company to discover Eugene's point of view. On July 14, the Elector in Augsburg was told that Tallard was on his way through the Black Forest. 33 ] But this restraint in battle led Marlborough to a disputed looting politics in Bavaria, in which houses and harvests in the wealthy countries just outside the Danube were burned.
It had two goals: first, to put strong force on the Elector before Tallard came with reinforcement, and second, to destroy Bavaria as a support point from which the army of France and Bavaria could assault Vienna, or to persecute the Duke to Franconia if he had to retreat to the north at some point.
34 ] But this devastation, combined with a lengthy besiege by rain (9-16 July), prompted Prince Eugen to complain "..... since the Donauwörth campaign I cannot marvel at her achievements", and later to come to the conclusion: "If he has to go home without having reached his goal, he will certainly be bankrupted. "Nevertheless, the Duke was able to place his greater numbers of troops in a strategic position between the Franco-Bavarian Armed forces and Vienna.
Tallard's Armed Forces had 56,000 men and 90 cannons; the Grand Alliance Armed Forces 52,000 men and 66 cannons. A number of Allied commanders, who knew the superiority of the adversary and were conscious of their powerful defence positions, dared to talk to Marlborough about the dangers of the attack; but the Duke was determined - "I know the dangers, but a fight is imperative, and I am relying on the courage and disciplinary of the forces that will make up for our disadvantages".
Marlborough and Eugene decide to take all chances and decide to go on the next game. On August 13th at 02:00 o'clock 40 wing were pushed towards the enemies, at 03:00 o'clock in eight crews by the allied troop. Around 06:00 o'clock they arrived in Schwenningen, two kilometres (3.2 km) from Blenheim.
British and Hitler Saxon armies, who had kept Schwenningen through the dark, followed the walk and formed a 9th convoy on the Armed Services' lefth side. Though Marlborough and Eugene have made their last outlines. While the Allied commander agree that Marlborough would have commanded 36,000 soldiers and Tallard's 33,000 men on the lefthand side (including the conquest of Blenheim village), Eugene, who would have commanded 16,000 men, would have attacked the Elector and Marsin's 23,000 men on the right; if this assault were harshly enforced, the Elector and Marsin would have no armies to help Tallard on the right.
Lieutenant General John Cutts would assault Blenheim with Eugene's assault. Marlborough crossed the fog while the France sides were occupied, giving the deadly shock to the midfield. But Marlborough had to sit tight until Eugene was in place before the general commitment could begin. Last thing Tallard was expecting this early a. m. was to be assaulted by the Allies - fooled by the inmates' brains that de Silly had captured the night before, and reassured in their powerful physical positions, Tallard and his associates were confident that Marlborough and Eugene were about to withdraw northeast towards Nördlingen.
Tallard had written a corresponding letter to King Louis this mornings, but he had hardly sent the courier when the Allied armies began to appear opposite his encampment. Monument to the Battle of Blenheim 1704, Germany. Following the deployment of his forces near Schwennenbach - far beyond their point of departure - Eugene was preparing for a second assault, headed by the second-league teams under the Duke of Württemberg-Teck.
"63 ] Anhalt-Dessau's Danes and Prussians assaulted a second attack, but could not maintain the march without appropriate assistance. Marlborough was getting ready to pass the fog while these incidents took place around Blenheim and Lutzingen. Under the command of the Duke's brother, General Charles Churchill, the center was made up of 18 bataillons of 18 soldiers, divided into two rows: seven front row units to gain a foot over the nebula, and eleven back row units that covered from the allied side of the river.
There are two lineages between the fleet, 72 squadron cavalries. That line would then constitute and mask the horse's passageway so that the spaces in the line of fire are large enough for the troop to go through and take up its front positions. Clérambault was criticized for maintaining such a large troop of infantrymen in Blenheim that she rejected the central team she needed.
However, Tallard was worried by the defense of the Gens d'Armes class and rushed across the pitch to ask Marsin for backup; but on the strength of strong pressure from Eugene - whose second assault was in full swing - Marsin declined. 67 ] When Tallard conferred with Marsin, more of his fleet was brought to Blenheim by Clérambault.
Tallard, who was conscious of the problem, did nothing to correct this serious error, so that he only had the nine regiments of the Höchstädt Strait at his disposal to resist the frequent hostile lines in the middle. However, the assaults were not coordinated, and the constant volley of Allied troops unsettled the riders.
Under the Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (not to be mistaken for the Duke of Württemberg, who was fighting with Eugene), the Danes had slowly crossed the fog near Oberglau; bullied by Marzin's fleet near the town, the Danes were chased back across the brook. Earl Horn's Flemish fleet succeeded in ousting the French from the waters, but it was obvious that Oberglauheim had to be saved before Marlborough could start their major operation against Tallard.
The fight was now at stake. Had Holstein-Beck's Flemish convoy been demolished, the Allied forces would be divided into two: When Marsin saw the chance, he ordered his troop to turn away from Eugene and to turn right and set up the open cross of Churchill's foot in front of Unterglau.
It was Marlborough (who had traversed the fog on a temporary overpass to take command of himself) who ordered Hulsens Hanoveran Bataillone to assist the Netherlands Army. of the 5:30 fight. Eugene, however, was angry at the efforts of his Imperial Corps, whose third assault had failed: he had already killed two of his soldiers to avoid a general outing.
Then Eugene declared with abhorrence that he wanted to "fight among valiant men and not among cowards", and attacked with the Preussian and Dessau infantries, as well as those who waved a regiment's color to inspired his forces. Beyond the town, Scholtens Danes beat the enemy of France in a frantic battle of bayonets.
83 ] When they saw that the center had been shattered, the Elector and Marsin ruled that the fight was gone and, like the remains of Tallard's armies, escaped from the battleground (albeit in better order than Tallard's men). Efforts to organize an Allied troop to stop Marsin from retreating were hampered by the depletion of the troops and the increasing disarray in the area.
When Tallard heard the noise of the Blenheim fight, he sent a dispatch to Marlborough to order the military to retreat from the area. "Notify Monsieur Tallard," the Duke answered, "that he has no authority in the current state. "But when it got dark.
They struggled hard for their positions in Blenheim, but their commandant was nowhere to be found. 86 ] Clérambault left Blenheim and the 27 bataillons that defended the town and is said to have died during his attempt to flee in the Danube. the fight at the Höchstädt MUSUM.
Suddenly the Allied troops break through and push Tallard's squadron off the field of war. in and around Blenheim. Butchery at Höchstädt by Wolfgang and Vind. In 1704, the 1704 campaigns took much longer than normal, as the Allies wanted to challenge the greatest possible benefit.
Recognizing that France was too mighty to be compelled into a peaceful situation by a simple win, Eugene, Marlborough and Baden came together to make plans for their next steps. The Duke suggested a camp along the Moselle River for the following year to bring the fighting to France.
96 ] Landau was taken on October 27 and Landau was taken over by the Margraves of Baden and Prince Eugene on November 23; the 1704 election year ended with the death of Trarbach on December 20. On 14 December (O.S.) Marlborough went back to England to cheer for Queen Anne and the state.
During the first few january the 110 civilian standard and 128 infrared colors taken during the fight were carried in parade to Westminster Hall. In February 1705 Queen Anne, who had appointed Marlborough Duke in 1702, gave him the Park of Woodstock and pledged him a 240,000 pounds for the construction of a decent home as a present of a rewarding royal tribute - a triumph that the English historic Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy regarded as one of the most important fights in the world.
There were eleven differences in the Julyan calendars used in England in 1704. Thus the battles of Blenheim were defeated on August 13 (Gregorian calendar) or August 2 (Julian calendar). Situated on the Danube, 10 kilometers (16 kilometers) south-west of Donauwörth in Bavaria, South Germany, is the town of Blindheim (Blenheim in English).
In 1704 Blindheim was located in the Pfalz-Neuburg duchy, which was admitted to Bavaria in 1808. Chandler and Falkner stats. A number of springs put the Allies' force at 56,000 and that of the Franco-Bavarian armed services at 60,000. Group and battalion numbers within each of the armies vary according to the well.
The Marlborough military commander, p. 128. and Marlborough as military commander, p. 129. The Barnett and Coxe have 45 wings and 36 regiments. Falkner: Blenheim 1704, p. 20, although Chandler states p. 131 that many men were killed on their way back through the desert. Falconer: Blenheim 1704, p. 25.
He doubted the dependability of Baden because he was a great companion of the Elector of Bavaria. The Marlborough military commander, p. 131. There had been some losses during the Allied march: Falconer: Blenheim 1704, p. 44. Tallard arrived in Augsburg on August 3rd, Lynn says. Marlborough: Marlborough had reassured Heinsius, however, that the besiegement made complete sense, and there is no straightforward proof that they invented his absenteeism on purpose.
Marlborough : Hisife and Times, S. 842. They explained that the entire Allied armies would move to Nördlingen the next day. Marlborough, p. 108. A number of springs (Churchill, Chandler) indicate that Marlborough plant this "evidence" on Tallard. Marlborough : Hisife and Times, S. 853.
Falconer: Blenheim 1704, p. 76. Tallard declares his failure in his report after the fight - "firstly, because the gendarmerie could not breach the five groupings. "Blenheim 1704, p. 80. Later Tallard wrote - "At that time I saw the hopes of winning.