Auckland ParkThe Auckland Park
AUCCOLAND CASTLE PARK, County Durham - 1000727
These gardens or other properties are listed under the 1953 Act on Historical Buildings and Ancient Monuments in the Register of Historical Parks and Gardens of English Heritage because of their particular historical interest. Gardens or other plots may be within the boundaries of more than one public body. The National Park: An ancient stag park associated with the Durham Bishops' Palace, Auckland Castle, which has C12 or previous origin, with landscape design date of C18.
Bricked backyards around the castle are of later C17 or former origins, as is the vegetable orchard. This park was created as a stag park, probably in the C11 or C12. There was a park at home in Auckland that was much bigger than it is today" (Bolden Buke, cited in 1983 DCC).
There was a flock of feral cows up to the C17 and there are notes of the gradual repopulation with deers. In 1538 Leland described the "fair park by the castelle" (quoted in 1983 DCC), and in 1627 Sir William Brereton (ibid.) described it as a "petite, imposing park".
During the Interregnum, in which the tree was felled, the park collapsed, but it was refilled by Bishop Cosin in the years 1660 to 1671 and the fish ponds were renovated. Bishop Butler described the park as "too woodless" in 1750. It was replaced by Bishop Trevor, who went on with the improvement and spent more than £8000 on the castle and park between 1752 and 1771.
In 1772, Jeremiah Dixon drew up a plan of the castle and park for Bishop Egerton, and except for the construction of a course in 1894, the fundamental layout remains the same. In the 1880s, Ewan Christian renovated the castle and park for Bishop Lightfoot.
SITUATION, AREA, BORDERS, LANDFORM, FACILITY The park and garden cover an area of about 120 ha and are located directly northeast of the city of Bishop Auckland, on a plot of ground that drops eastward to the Gaunless until it rises to a platform eastward and northward of the city. Gaunless and Wear meet on the western side of the terrain, and the country drops northwards and into the Wear Vale.
It is situated on farmland, with the sole exemption of the south-western side, which borders the city. The main entry is from the market square in Bishop Auckland, where there is an arched gateway surrounded by a belfry (Grade I), built by Thomas Robinson for Bishop Trevor in 1760.
On the southern side of the entry is a chalet. There is a large access road with a large strip of grass and the battlements of the castle grounds on the northern side and the battlements of the vegetable orchard and cast-iron railing on the southern side, leading eastwards to the castle door.
An artwork from around 1700 (CL 1972) shows that the southern side of the running gear had a battlements along its entire length, which was partly taken out to open the park, perhaps in the later C18th century. Continue to the park entry at the south-eastern end of the castle gardens, where there is a door replacing an entry by an opening in a crenellated walls, which is shown in a Buck perspective from 1728 (ibid.).
There is a second entry on the northern side of the park via a dirt road. At this entry on the 1. issue of the OS card (measured 1854-7), a middle truck named Middle Laodge was torn down C20. To the southwest and southwest through the park to a viaduct over the river Gaunless (1765, degree II) and further to the castle with a feathered stag protection tree look (see below), which anticipates the castle in a southerly direction.
Continue to the park entry at the eastern end of the road. Auckland Castle BUILDING Auckland ( "Class I") is located on a foothill with views of the Gaunless Valley to the west and the River Arne to the west. It is the formal seat of the Durham bishop and was probably built as a mansion for Bishop du Puiset in the C12, although the Bolden Buke refers to an early ecclesial occupancy of the village, perhaps from the later C11.
In 1660-5 for Bishop Cosin and 1767-72 for the Episcopes Trevor and Egerton extensive alterations were made. In 1661-5, the large mediaeval room on the eastern side of the house was rebuilt to the St. Peter's Chapel for Bishop Cosin. Living- and state rooms are located in the centre and an oblong piano named Scotland stretches westwards of the town.
It will continue to be used as the Bishop of Durham's palace and parts of the palace will be used as diocese office and residential quarters (1998). About 30 metres westwards of the castle there is a U-shaped series of houses around a courtyard (listed level II), which consist of converted mediaeval houses with an unfamiliar purpose, which were converted during the C18 and C19 and converted into a coachman' s lodge and shops as well as for other secondary uses.
GARDEN UND GENUSSGRUNDSTÜCKE The garden's principal entry is on the southern side of the castle, where there is a battlement with an oblique entry with three ogival apertures surrounded by eight-sided pinnacle towers (James Wyatt in 1795 for Bishop Barrington, all under monumental protection).
On each side the partitions have a row of eight open pointed archs to the East and seven to the Wests, with handrails in the inlets. The western side of the canvas ends with a small tower from which the wallpaper runs as a battlemented debris panel to the east along the propulsion, which is lower than the canvas and possibly the wallpaper shown in this location in a picture from about 1680 (CL 1972).
At the other side, the Berlin Wall extends around the northern and southern sides of the gardens. On the way from the entry to the northern side between grassed areas there is a turning radius of pebbles in front of the cemetery. On the OS card of the 1. issue, the easterly part of the gardens consist of a centrally recessed grass designated as Bowling Green, with a terrace-shaped outline following the gardens around the southern, easterly and northern sides of the gardens and running along the western side of the gras.
You have a view over the park landscape from the ramparts, and at each end of the northern face there are two vaulted entrances to the park. A staircase at the end of the northern path leads up to a plateau with a battlement on the southern side, which is located at the eastern end of the cemetery. From there you have a view of the garden and the park landscape.
That part of the gardens is shown on a map from 1826. At the western side, a brick walls separates the gardens from an inner court in the corner of the Scottish grand piano. There is a paved road leading from an entry with a gateway from the driveway to the northern side, and from there two diagonal roads leading north-east across lawn to the castle entries, as shown on the map of 1826.
On the northwest side of this area, a walkway between the Scottish Grand Piano and the serviceblock opens onto a third closed courtyard, the interior of which is clad with bricks and has a straightforward design of paved edges. Another bricked-in section is to the east, on the western face is a mediaeval lighthouse (listed degree I) on the northern part.
There are six round pillars (C17, protected as a historical monument, degree II) about 3 metres eastwards of the Berlin-Walled area. They probably represent the remnants of a hayloft or a camp. About 1680 the picture shows that Wyatt's ramparts partly substituted the old ones around the gardens and that there was an extra rampart that ran southwards of the eastern end of the church.
In the eastern face is a pavilion in a central location. Buck's 1728 plan is the same, although at that point the pavilion rooftop was elevated and balustrades stood in front of the castle's front oftrance. It' s possible that the walls of the castle were built as part of Bishop Cosin's later C17 renovations of the castle, perhaps ordered by the 1680 paint.
The park stretches out to the northern and eastern side of the castle. The park is subdivided into three different areas: the inner or nearby park, which covers the area between the castle and the Gaunless; the high park to the northeast and the plateau to theheast. Close to the park there is open grasslands with dispersed lumps and the forested Gaunless Canyon.
From the park's front door, a trail known as Broad Walk goes southeast down to Gaunless, where there is a pedestrian bridge depicted on the 1924 OS card. As a result, the name of the foolishness was Temple, about 400 m southeast of the castle, which was erected in 1810 and torn down in 1961.
There' s an entry to the park opposite the front door of the gardens, where a cast-iron door opens onto a ruined staircase on the eastern side and on both sides of a stony bunker with a vaulted tip from which one has a view of the canal.
It provides entry to an entry to the vegetable gardens and a walkway leading down to the riverbank, as shown on the OS 1 pass card when there was another pedestrian bridge across the canal. About 250 metres northeast of the castle is a large stag hut (listed level I), which was erected in 1760 for Bishop Trevor.
It has a square ground floor with a feathered spire and arcade sides with sloping battlements. You will have a view of the escarpment on the eastern side of the rivier. Fish ponds in the park are listed in the notes of the C12.
To the northwest, the country on the westside falls off as open grasslands with dispersed vegetation, and there is a square lake in the westerly part of the park, about 180 m northwest of the castle. This, with another smaller swimming pools just south of the latter, is shown on the map of 1772. Northeast of the Gaunless is the forested side of Coundon Burn, which joins the Gaunless at a point between the pier and the border to the east and northeast of High Park.
Roads cross the area and there are three C18 rock viaducts over the Burn (all listed). The northern part of the country is in an area of grasslands and thin forests known as Hazel Bank Plantation. There is a small pyramid of stones about 950m northeast of the castle. High Plain, the park's easterly part, is an open field area with dispersed vegetation, mainly with a C20 date, which is used as a course and is separated from the side of the Coundon Burn River basin by a rail.
An abandoned railroad line passes through the park's east tip. In 1772 the planted areas on the east bank of the Gaunless and in the Coundon Burn river valleys, as well as in the area just below the stag sanctuary. The lumps shown in High Park do not seem to be surviving, but the base design largely corresponds to the actual (1998) coverage of trees.
KÜCHE GARTEN The culinary gardens are located on a plot of ground that drops southeast from the entry behind the chateau and about 100 meters to the southeast of the town. This is a sub-rectangular floor layout surrounded by class II stonewalls with bricks on the inside. In the C20, the western face was re-aligned, probably when Durham Rd was upgraded with the Gaunless overpass.
There are three uneven sections in the backyard, one of which is a north/south side partition ing a small shelf on the western side and one of which is east/west and the rest of the backyard is split into two uneven sections with the smaller shelf northward. The first is in the northern face just easterly of the chalet and the second is at the northern end of the eastern face, where there is an opening with a gate to the park and the stairs that lead to the entrance (see above).
You can see a wall edifice in the picture from about 1680 and in Buck's opinion from 1728. At present (1998) it is used as a professional nursery.