An Angolan country suffers from the legacy of colonialism and decades of civil war, which left a shattered country with a destroyed infrastructure. Situated on the Atlantic coast in southern Africa, the Republic of Angola is the second largest oil producer in Africa.
World Factbook - Central News Agency
The Angolan economy is performing poorly on HRDI, although it has been using its large crude resources for reconstruction since the end of a 27-year long civilian conflict in 2002. The struggle between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) under the leadership of Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS and the National Union for the Total Independent of Angola (UNITA) under the leadership of Jonas SAVIMBI followed the liberation of Portugal in 1975.
When Angola hosted the 1992 Angolan election, it seemed that there was an immediate prospect of a peaceful atmosphere, but the conflict increased again in 1993. As many as 1.5 million could have died in more than a quarter hundred years of struggle - and 4 million persons were driven from their homes. After more than a decade after the end of the 27-year Angolan civilian conflict, the Angolan economy still faces a wide range of socio-economic challenges, among them extreme levels of mothers' and children's death and literacy.
Adolescents - about 45% are younger than 15 years - will grow strongly with a fecundity of more than 5 per female and a low contraception ratio. Less than half of females give birth to their infants with the help of skilled healthcare workers, which helps Angola's high motherhood deaths.
Most of the 550,000 Angolans who escaped their homes during the Spanish Revolution have since 2002. The United Nations in 2012 evaluated that Angola's situation had been stabil for several years and cited the abolition of Angolan status as a source of migrants. Angola's economic activity is mainly fuelled by the petroleum industry.
Crude petroleum extraction and its support operations account for about 50% of GNP, more than 70% of state revenues and more than 90% of the country's export; Angola is a member of OPEC and is governed by its policy on crude extraction. Diamond accounts for an extra 5% of the export. The increase in crude produced helped support annual average annual economic expansion of more than 17% from 2004 to 2008.
Rebuilding after the end of the conflict and the relocation of internally-displaced people also resulted in high levels of economic expansion in the building and agricultural sectors. Part of the country's infrastructures are still degraded or untapped by the 27-year long civilian conflict. But since 2005, the Chinese, Brazilian, Portuguese, German, Spanish and EU governments have used billion-dollar loans to reconstruct Angola's official infrastructures.
The landmines remaining from the conflict still affect the landscape, so that the country's armed forces, multinational associates and Angolan corporations are continuing to eliminate them all. Angola's slowdown in the world economy has been slowed down by the onset of the 2008 downturn, and many building contracts have been halted, as Luanda's state revenues have fallen and the country has fallen back several billion dollars for overseas-builders.
Decreasing the price of crude petroleum and diamond also led to a 0.7% decline in the country's gross domestic product in 2016. The Angolan economy officially gave up its monetary link in 2009, but reintroduced it in April 2016 and maintained an exaggerated foreign parity. At the end of 2016, Angola shed the last of its correspondents' relations with other countries, further compounding the difficulties with the tough currencies.