American Samoa RegionSamoa-American Region
Samoa is an uncorporated area of the United States, about 4 190 km/2 604 charter leagues SW of Honolulu, Hawaii, just west of the International Date Line (lat. 14° 18' S. and long. 170° 41' E.).... It has a surface area of 200 km2/77 mile2, (48 011 acres/19 430 ha).
The temperature ranges from 21 to 32° C (70o to 95o F). Severe rains can happen all year round and often cause damages such as floods, landslips, blackouts and canal and roads. National Park in green). Taâu Island Map (American Samoa National Park in green).
Maps of Ofu and Olosega (American Samoa National Park in green). Prior to the Polynesians' advent more than 3,000 years ago, almost all of American Samoa was shrouded in rainforests from the coast to the peaks of the mountain range. As a result of manâ??s activity â?" mainly transhumance farming and, since the 1880s, the emergence of commercially available plantations of coconuts â?" the wood was substituted by alternative growth.
Today the still very small jungle is mostly on precipitous inner hillsides and in the dank, cold mountain areas away from the neighborhood. Diagram of the environmental terrain in metres above the surface of the ocean. Forests up to a height of 500 metres have been changed, at least in part, by means of subsidised farming and other activity.
Swain' s Island is an ally of American Samoa in political terms, but phyto-geographically linked to the Tokelau group. which was carried out in 1988, carried out an extra collection and stock-taking. The coastal wood grows on sand or rock in a small area between the low-beached sea side and the interior lowlands.
It is the largest of the coastal municipalities and is often ruled by a unique type of trees, especially Barringtonia Asiatica, Calophyllum Iophyllum, Hernandia Nephaeifolia, Pisonia Grandeis or Terminalia Caprata. The rose atoll is supporting a Pisonia wood. Monodominant undergrowth of the Pandanus vectorius from 1 to 6 meters above sea level (e.g. eastern shore of Taâu; Swains Island) can be found in some parts of the coastal wood.
Swains Island has only a few isolated litoral woods still covered by Hernandia or Pandanus. Mangroves, dominant of the Bruguiera Gymnorhiza (oriental mangroves), are found in sheltered coves and mouths where freshwater penetrates into the sea and forms a 12-15 metre high shelter.
Only Bruguiera seeds are allowed in the undergrowth, but the marsh ferns Acrostichum acureum and Rhizophora samoensis lackgle (Red Mangrove) can be found in disrupted, open areas. There are also endemic plantations, such as xylocarpus moleuccensis (puzzle nut) and coastal forest tree life. The mangroves in troubled areas are often dominant with small to medium-sized Rhizophora veloensis saplings.
The mangroves are mainly found on the south-central Tutuila coastline. It is the largest and most extensive rainforest in American Samoa, the following three lowlands differ in their composition, as well as in their substratum and humidity properties. Diospyro's forest: Moderate-sized woodland on well dewatered land in the interior of the coastal wood, this area is dominant of Diospyros olliptica and D. veloensis in conjunction with Syzygium clusterifolium and S. Deatum.
Litoral varieties such as Pisonia grandeis are sometimes seen. One example of this wood can be found on the island of Nuâutele before âOfu. The Dysoxylum Forest: Dysoxylum staoensis D. maja dominates this wood form typical in floodplain troughs, on precipitous flatland rocks and on valley sides (e.g. north shore of Tutuila, eastern shore of Taâu).
Syzygygium forest: As a ripe rainforest on age-old, deep eroded volcano soil, the Syzygian rainforest can be found on flatland spines and precipitous inner hills. S. is dominant; associated treetops are Alphitonia zizyphoides, Calophyllum neo-ebudicum, Fagraea vitiense, Fagraea berteroana, lesser myristica, Myristica hypargyraea, Planchonella garberi und Dygium saison.
At altitudes above 500 metres, the weather becomes more humid (5,000 mm precipitation at an altitude of 600 metres), the dryer low-lying rainforest gives way to a mountain wood predominated by Dysoxylum heuntii. At these altitudes, two other types of dysoxylum (D. xamoensis, D. maota), which occur in the lowlands, dilute.
Astronidium and Bischofia are associated treetops, Fagraea Berteroana, Hernandia Merenhoutiana, Reynoldsia, Reynoldssia Sar, Spraeanthemum Sasso, Trichospermum Richii and Weinmannia Sar. This wood is found in the highest areas of Taâu and Olosega. The low-growing, knotty wood on Taâu is dominant with two kinds of ferns (Cyathea), namely Symbol usoense and Weinmannia Affinis.
Frequent wood types are Ascarina Diffuse, Astronidium Picklinggii, Dysoxylum Huntia and Streblus Anthropophagorus. It has been affected by the recent cyclones (1987 and 1990) and parts are overshadowed by a bush landscape of Freycinetia stockii, together with terrestric fern (Blechnum volcanicum, Dicksonia brackenridgei), Cyathea sp. and Cyrtandra sp. Other names such as moss or dwarf wood are associated with this region.
Typical dominate Scaevola tacada and/or Wollastonia binflora on sand and rocks, this form of growth is found between the herbal beach area and the coastal wood or pandanus bushes. Further typical types are Clerodendrum erme, Colubrina asiatica, Colubrina scarabra and Premna Serratifolia. Most of the types that grow on these traychytes are only found in these barren areas.
It is a bushy plant with small, sparse undergrowth. It evolves on recently deserted areas quickly populated by fast-growing stray and often haliophytic plantations. Much of the latter are disappearing, as the undergrowth is finally substituted by a primary wood that darkens the undergrowth.
These high forests are characterised by shady and incompatible plants that substitute for secondaries. Alphitonia Zizyphoides, Elattostachys Falkata and Rhus Taeitensis are the predominant types of woodland; however, these types are infrequent in the undergrowth, suggesting that they are finally substituted by other types of secundary and primitive wood. Further frequent types of secundary forests are Adenanthera javonina, Bischofia Javanica, Cananga odorata, Dysoxylum ppp, Hibiscus Tibaceus, Kleinhovia Hiliaceus, Macaranga Speculosa and the neonauca plant.
Most of the underwood is made up of an impermeable undergrowth of young palm trees and the bird nesting ferns of Asplenium Nuidus s.l. Cole, T.G., C.D. Whitesell, W.A. Whistler, N. McKay and A.H. Ambacher 1988. American Samoa woodland inventories.
USA Forestry Service, Pac. South West Forrest and Range Exp. Sta. Resource Bull. Vegation of East Samoa. Samoa and Tonga flora. Website with total woodland area, hectares of non-industrial privately owned woodland, are under stem-ship maps and other information. Forested area of 43,500 hectares, converted to 17,603 ha.
A good national park woodland characterisation and breakdown of existing flora, incl. an commented flora and fauna listing. Taâu National Park wood and flora and fauna profiles. On the way to a territorial protection strategy and establishment of a system of protected areas for American Samoa. Contains backgrounds on the protection of bio-diversity, facts about forests, tendencies, schematical map of Tutuila and Manuâa, charts, inventory of protected areas, biologic and natural assets, and more.
Types, DBH and altitude gathered. Types, DBH and altitude gathered. Olivier (1999) gives a chart of plantations by type and year. Forested areas only: includes highlands, coastline, mangroves, dwarf woods and mosses. Crossings with wooded areas were selected as land parcels (2.5 ha each, n = 20). During this period there were no significant wildfires.
In 1987, 1990 and 1991, however, storms or whirlwinds caused damage to the American Samoa forest. A fire safety department is supported by the Ministry of Civil Works of the American-Samoan Government. Each year USDA FS Fire Protection provides funding for government reconnaissance, lorries, education and more. For more information about the American Sami fire, please contact Dennis Orbus firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Forestry Department has a Forest Health Programme. Forest Health is preparing a 5-year work schedule to expand the scale of this programme. The USDA FS Forest Health Monitoring and/or Forest Inventory Programme is expected to start in 2002. AS Forestry held a Forest Health Workshop in June 2000 to evaluate the likelihood of a Forest Health Inventory and Monitoring Programme in the near term.
Imported and diseased animals must be combated, i.e. the implementation/improvement of isolation logs, and the indigenous forests, which appear to be relatively untroubled by tropical invertebrates, must be carefully supervised. Information on invertebrate plants can be found at http://www.hear.org/pier/asreport.htm. American Samoa woodland inventories. USA Forestry Service, Pac.
Southwestern Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Resource Bull. This number is reduced by the fast transformation of the country due to the pressure of demographic and developmental pressure on Tutuila. Mangroves, dominant in Bruguiera Gymnorhiza, are found in sheltered coves and mouths where freshwater reaches the oceans. Only Bruguiera seeds in the undergrowth are allowed in the enclosed porch roof, but the marshy ferns Acrostichum ureum and Rhizophora type trunks lack holes.
The mangroves are often a group of mangroves with small to medium-sized rhizophora deficiency shrubs. The mangroves are mainly found on the south-central Tutuila coastline. American Samoa woodland inventories. USA Forestry Service, Pac. Südwestlicher Wald and Range Exp. Sta. Resource Bull. Vegation of East Samoa.
Samoa and Tonga flora. Area of the American Samoa National Park (1120 ha in Tutuila and 2190 ha in Taâu). It is not possible to break it down by type of wood. The area is currently under steam-ship schemes according to the 1999 forestry resources fact sheet. On the way to a territorial protection strategy and establishment of a system of protected areas for American Samoa.
Forestry Stewardship Program â" helps landholders achieve their goals while offering advantages such as cleaner fresh breezes, cleaner waters, ground protection and habitats for game. Raising people' s consciousness of the importance of sustainable forestry is an important topic. As Tutuila's populations are growing fast, there is little space for living and farming.
Rescuing the current low-lying rainforests is an emergency problem, as the few surviving propertyowners want to resell such area. It will become more and more important in the management of our environment as the need for sustainable development increases as the need for increased pressures on our own wood reserves increases. At present, no precise information on the possession of woodland is available.
A large part of the information for non-wood forestry has been obtained from personal interview and/or survey from January 2000 to the present.