American HawaiianHawaiian American
AAS' collection of early Hawaiian prints is one of Hawaiiana's strongest institutional collections outside the islands, and it continues to grow.
American Hawaiian Steamship was established in 1899 to transport loads of sugars from Hawaii to the United States and to transport goods back to Hawaii. The main actors in the foundation of the business were brother-in-law George Dearborn and Lewis Henry Lapham. In 1899 the enterprise started with three vessels, ran nine until 1904 and from seventeen until 1911 with three to order.
In the early days of the business, steamers crossed the Strait of Magellan to South America to arrive at the East Coast docks. In 1907, the firm began using the Mexican isthmus route from Tehuantepec. Consignments on the Tehuantepec route would be handled in the Atlantic harbour of Coatzacoalcos (formerly Puerto) or in the Pacific harbour of Salina Cruz and cross the isthmus of Tehuantepec on the 310 kilometre long Tehuantepec National Railway.
Until the Panama Canal was completed, the agreement with American-Hawaiian for the whole load, which will be moved between the world' s seas and will secure at least 500,000 tonnes of diabetes and other loads, was important for the railway' s business plan right from the start. Tehuantepec allowed the airline to operate both a New York-Honolulu and Salina Cruz Pacific port itinerary.
By delivering new vessels, the airline designed four 8,000-ton vessels on the New York-Coatzacoalco line, six 12,000-ton vessels on the Salina Cruz-Honolulu line and two 6,000-ton vessels on the West Coast line. Corporate vessels were used on both the Pacific and Atlantic trade lanes.
As the American policy problems with Mexico ended this itinerary, the Americans and Hawaiians moved back to the Strait of Magellan. American Hawaiian began to navigate all its vessels on this itinerary when the Panama Channel was opened to service in August 1914. Temporarily closing the channel due to a string of landslips compelled the firm to revert to the Strait of Magellan for the third year in its existence.
Twelve of the company's vessels were put into service with the US Navy during the First World War, and another five were submarine or mine blasted during the war. In the mid-1920s, Roger Dearborn Lapham, a prospective major of San Francisco, California, was chairman of the group. It was confiscated by the United States on April 6, 1917 in Pago Pago, Samoa under the supervision of the United States Shipping Board as an apple and then in 1920 changed its name to Kermit, before being acquired by American-Hawaiian on March 5, 1920 for $538,881.99 and given the name Nebraskan.
The vessel was supplied by American Hawaiian to the War Shipping Administration (ESC) on 9 February 1942 for use under the United States Army Transportation Corps Charta with American Hawaiian as ESC operative, until the transfer of the vessel's ownership to the ESC on 2 December for supply under Lend Lease to the Soviet Union, where it became Sukhona until its re-entry to the ESC on 6 April 1944.
Throughout the Second World War, the firm ran vessels under the War Shipping Administration, some of which were held by and taken over by the WSA, such as Nebraska, and others directly to the WSA for the operations of sales representatives such as Benjamin Goodhue, SS Chanute Victory, John Milledge, John Drake Sloat and Marine Eagle.
"American Hawaiian Steamship Company, 1899-1919." "Tehuantepec Isthmus and Tehuantepec National Railway". American Geographical Society bulletin. Accessed February 10, 2015. S. S. S. Heubner, "Steamship Line Agreements and Affiliations in the American Foreign and Domestic Trade". The American Academy of Political and Social Science. Accessed February 10, 2015.
Relationship of the Panama Canal to traffic and rates of the American railways. Accessed February 10, 2015. Nautical Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration. Accessed February 10, 2014. Nautical Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration. Accessed February 10, 2014. Last viewed February 10, 2014. schiffe-maxim.de. Accessed February 10, 2014.