??) is a country in North Africa. Prevent road traffic throughout Algeria, especially in the provinces of Tamanrasset and Illizi, because of the presence of armed groups. Algiers (Arabic: ???????) is an Arabic country in North Africa. It is the mission of the United States Embassy to represent the interests of the United States and to serve and protect the US citizens in Algeria. Democratic People's Republic of Algeria.
Facts, Geography & Historic Facts
Algeria's rich past, languages, customs and Muslim legacy make it an inherent part of the Maghreb and the Arabian Empire, but the Algerian people are also large Amazighs (Berbers), with ties to this rich culture. Formerly the bread basket of the Roman Empire, the area now encompassing Algeria was governed by various Arab-Maczech dictatorships from the eighth to the sixteenth centuries, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire.
Until 1847 the Algerians had largely repressed Algeria's opposition to the occupation, and in the following year Algeria became a department of France. Macedonists modernised Algeria's agriculture and trade, but were separated from the main part of Algeria and enjoyed socioeconomic privilege, extending to a few non-Europeans. In the mid-20th c., ethnical resentments fuelled by the Algerians' radical policies, who had been living and studying in France.
This was followed by a struggle for freedom (1954-62) so violent that the revolutionist Frantz Fanon stated: terrorism, anti-terror, force, counterviolence: this is what commentators hold harshly when they describe the cycle of hatred that is so persistent and obvious in Algeria. The negotiation ended the dispute and resulted in Algeria's independance, and most Europeans abandoned the state.
Despite the fact that the impact of Algeria's Arabic and Muslim languages and cultures has stayed powerful, the Algeria has repeatedly tried to recover its Arabian and Muslim legacy since its sovereignty. Simultaneously, the exploitation of petroleum, methane and other minerals in the interior of Algeria provided the countrys new prosperity and led to a moderate increase in livelihood.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Algeria's economic development was among the biggest in Africa. Algeria's second town is Oran, a Mediterranean harbour near the Moroccan frontier; less frantic than Algiers, Oran has developed into an important center for culture, arts and culture. It borders Tunisia and Libya to the west, Niger, Mali and Mauritania to the southeast, Morocco and the Sahara in the north and Morocco (which was practically integrated by the first one).
Its most northerly part, commonly known as Tell, is influenced by the Mediterranean and is largely composed of the Atlas Mountains, which separates the coast from the second area to the South. Most of the country's land is in this southerly area, almost exclusively deserts, in the west of the Sahara, which extends over North Africa.
Algeria's most important architectural reliefs were created by the collisions of Africa and Eurasia's Mediterranean sea slabs, which gave the Algerian land its two geographical areas. Tell, the home of most of the country's inhabitants, consists of two young geological masses, the Tell Atlas (Atlas Tellien) and the Sahara Atlas (Atlas Saharien), which generally run simultaneously from eastern to western direction and are divided by the high plateau (Hauts Plateau).
It is a sturdy and old underground stone plattform, horizontally and even. It is an unpopulated wilderness except for a few oasis, but it is home to a wealth of minerals, especially oil and cogeneration. Intermittently folding coastlines and lowlands follow from west to west.
Together with the Tell Atlas, the high plateau and the Sahara Atlas, they constitute a series of five geographic ly diverse areas that run approximately parallelly to the coastline. Its coastline and massives are divided by many coves, often divided by levels such as the Oran and Annaba plain, which stretch into the interior of the country.
Likewise, the Tellatlas is not continual; in the western part it creates two different areas divided by inner levels. The Maghnia Plain divides the Tlemcen Mountains in the southern part from the Traras Mountains in the northwestern part. The Sidi Bel Abbès and Mascara plain is also located between the hills to the northern and southern parts.
Dahra Massif stretches from the estuary of the Chelif River in the western part to Mount Chenoua in the eastern part; it is divided from the Ouarsenis Massif in the southern part by Chelif Valley plain. Not so in the centre of Tell, where the Blida Atlas melts into the Titteri Mountain chain and the hilly bloc of Great Kabylia (Grande Kabylie) connects with the Biban and Hodna Hills to make North-South communication more complicated.
Further eastwards, from Bejaïa to Annaba, one wall follows the other to divide the Constantine plain from the other. Situated to the southern side of the plain, the country is overshadowed by the Hodna, Aurès and Nemencha series. Long used for cereals, the plain itself has a distinctive regional landscape and does not have the same characteristics as the plateau that stretches from the Hodna Mountains to the west to Morocco.
The Sahara Atlas stretches along the southern side of the high plateau and the plain of Constantine and consists of a number of mountainous stretches facing both to the northwest and the northwest. This decrease in altitude from the western, where Mount Aïssa rises to 2,236 meters (7,336 feet) in the Ksour Mts., to the lower peaks in the Amour and Mt. and Mt. Orulad Naïl.
The Aurès mountains are the highest mountain in Algeria's highest point, Mount Chelia (2,328 metres). The only areas of great seismological activities are the Tell mountains in the far North that extend along the border of the tower. Algeria's Sahara can be broadly categorized into two differently high valleys, which are seperated from each other by a main north-south ascent named M?zab (Mzab).
Great-East-Erg ( "Grand Erg Oriental") and Great-Western Erg ("Grand Erg Occidental"), which are 1,300 to 2,000 ft (400 to 600 meters) high on mean, drop from the base of the Ahaggar Mountains (Hoggar) to below water levels in places just below the southern Aurès Mountains.
Ahaggar Mountains in the south of the Sahara tower to the tops; the highest mountain, Mount Tahat, is 2,918m. high and the highest summit in the state. Tellatlas fluxes are mostly brief and subject to large fluctuations in the current. Chelif is the biggest of the two streams. It originates in the high plateau, passes the Tellatlas and runs through an east-west channel into the ocean just south of Mostaganem.
There are only volatile streams (wadis) southwards of the Tellatlas, and many subsurface runoffs end in Schotts (salt marshes) within inner wells. A number of Saharan streams, especially those from the highlands of Ahaggar, cover the valley mainly during the rainy season in the Pleistocene (2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago).
A number of wadi flow southwards feeding the groundwater levels below the Sahara and oasis deserts are formed where the sea flows to the ground under waterstatic pressures in artemisian wells or wells. The Mediterranean reddish soil occupies the lower elevation in large parts of the north of Tell. Further southwards the soil becomes increasingly unripe with increasing drought; they are characterised by low levels of chemicals or enrichment of organics.
In the mid-70s, an aggressive plan was launched to build a "green barrier" against the invasion of the Sahara to the north, reforestation of a small stretch up to 19 km wide and around 1,600 km long; it turned out to be only partially succeed. Algeria's coast and the north of the mountain range have a typically Mediterranean climates with hot, arid summer and gentle, wet-winter.
Four fifth of the city's rainfall occurs between October and March, and July and August are usually drought. The overall rainfall along the coastline is increasing from north to south but decreasing quickly from north to south. Rainfall is more than 600 mm (24 inches) annually from a point about 50 mi (80 km) to the western border of Algiers to Tunisia, and in certain places - for example in the Great Kabylia, Petite Kabylie and the Edough region - it is about 1,000 mm (40 inches).
Westerly of this site, a significant part of the Chelif plain and the coastal plain and the area just southwards near Oran is inadequately irrigated and receives less than 580 mm (23 inches). Rainfall continues to decrease after the Atlas mountain has been crossed to the southward direction, except in the Aurès and part of the Amour mountain range, which is still about 400 mm (16 inches).
The North Algeria terrain, along the coast, delimits the southern permeation of the Mediterranean climates. There is still enough rainfall on the lowlands and hilly areas just to the south of the coast mountain range, but the weather is much dryer and the temperatures are more diverse. On the other side, the high plateau is characterised by extreme temperatures every day and year, warm summer and cool winter and inadequate rain.
Rainfall per year can vary between 100 and 400 mm (4 to 16 inches). And the Sahara itself begins at the south edge of the Sahara Atlas. Landscapes and flora are very different from those in the northern part, living and activities are restricted to a few preferential places. Day-to-day and yearly temperatures are even more severe than on the plateau, and rainfall is characterised by major irregularities.
In Tademaït it can take three years without rainfall, on the Ahaggar plain even five years. In Algeria, where all areas are exposed to dry weather, all plants are typically dry. Most of the northern Tell area was once forested, but most of it has been substituted by bush land made up of evergreens, often fragrant, hard-leaved bushes and low-tree species such as bay leaf, rose marijuana and thyme. Some of the areas of the Tell area have been destroyed.
Further southwards, the growing drought is reducing the plantation to a patchy steppes (treeless plain) predominated by espartograss. Nothern mountain wildlife comprises mouflon, Berber stags, boar and Berber jack. Over three-quarters of the land is ethnic Arabian, although most Algerians are descendents of old Amazon groups that have intermingled with various invasive tribes from the Arabian Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and Sub-Saharan Europe.
Arabian incursions in the eighth and eleventh century introduced only a small number of new populations to the area, but led to widespread Arabization and islamisation of the Amazonian tribe. About one fifth of the Algerians consider themselves Amazighs today, of which the Kabyle Imazighen (majority of the Amazigh), which occupy the mountain area eastwards of Algiers, constitute the group.
The Shawia (Chaouïa), who mainly lives in the Aurès Mountains, are other Amazon groups; M?zabites, a resident group derived from the supporters of ?Abd al-Ra?m?n ibn Rustam, who are living on the northerly periphery of the Sahara-Ahaggar area; and the Tuareg people. In 1990 it became Algeria's main local currency, and most Algerians have one of several different languages.
Tamazight - in several geographical languages - is the Algerian vernacular, although most are also two-lingual. Algeria's formal politics of "Arabization" since the country's liberation, which is aimed at promoting tribal Arab and Muslim culture throughout Algeria, has led to French being replaced by Arab as a domestic media and especially as the main teaching method in elementary and high school.
The majority of Algerians, both Arabs and Amazigh, are Sunnite Muslims of the M?lik? Covenant. Islam became an essential part of Algeria's nationalist fight against France. One particular part of this traditional practice in Northern Africa, which results from popular Muslim practice and the Sufi doctrine, is the important part of the marmot.
The post-independence Algerian government has endorsed the country's Muslim legacy, while its policy has often promoted post-independence development. Algeria's densities are highest in the plateaus and coastline mountain ranges of the north of Tell - the areas with higher and more dependable rainfall. Southwards, most of the southerly plateau and the Sahara atlas are thinly settled and further southwards large parts of the Sahara are practically unpopulated.
In Algeria, the country estate used to consist of widely dispersed towns and insulated housing, with nomadic populations in parts of the Sahara and its outskirts. Focused peasant communities have sometimes been found in oasis and certain highland areas, such as the Aurès Mountains and Great Kabylia, the latter being a Amazigh heartland known for its hillside towns and traditions.
During the second half of the nineteenth c., several hundred "villages of colonization" were established in the country by settler of France who came to Algeria in the second half of the nineteenth c... During the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), almost 8,000 settlements and settlements were devastated and some three million persons were forsaken. Harbour and industry activity also sped up the growth of certain seaside cities such as Annaba (Bône), Skikda (Philippeville) and Mostaganem.
Algeria's average year on year demographic increase was high in the second half of the twentieth century, but at the end of the eighties it began to slow down, especially its fertility in number. Algeria's exodus to Europe, once a sustainable option for the country's jobless, decreased in the latter part of the twentieth centuries as France curtailed further migrations, but decade-long migrations have affected a large Algiers in France, Belgium and other West African states.
Furthermore, the nomadic nature of the Sahara was greatly diminished in the twentieth-century by the impact of the arid conditions in the deserts and by the government's policy of settlements.