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The Auckland Islands facts for children
Auckland Islands (M?ori: Motu Maha or Maungahuka) is an New Zealand island 465 km southward of the isle. Including Auckland Island, Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island and Green Island with a total area of 625 sqm.
There are no constant humans on the island. From an ecological point of view, the Auckland Isles are part of the antipod subantarctic ecology of the Andes. Together with other subantarctic New Zealand archipelagos, they were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998. Auckland Island is located 360 kilometers southwards of Stewart Island and 465 kilometers from Bluff Southern Island Harbour, between 50° 30' and 50 55' East and 165 50' and 166 20' East. These are Auckland Island, Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island and Green Island with a total area of 625 km2 (240 miq).
They are densely spaced, divided by small canals, and the coast is craggy, with a number of coves. Åuckland Island, the principal island, has an area of approximately 510 square kilometres (197 square kilometres) and a length of 42 kilometres (26 kilometres). South end of the island widens to 26 km.
Here the Carnley Harbour canal (the Adams Strait on some maps) divides the Adams Island from the approximately triangle-shaped Adams Island (area approx. 100 km2), which is even more hilly and reaches a level of 705 metres (2,313 ft) on Mount Dick. It is the remainder of the volcanic craters of an extinguished island, and Adams Island and the south part of the island make up the edge of the caldera.
There are many sharp coves on the island, especially Port Ross at the north. There are many other smaller archipelagos, in particular Disappointment Island (10 km north-west of the island ) and Enderby Island (1 km from the north tip of the island ), each of which covers less than 5km².
The majority of the island were volcanic, and the island was ruled by two 12 million year old Miocene volcanos, which were extinct and dismantled afterwards. Throughout the year, the Auckland Island has a fairly consistent chilly and balmy climate, with neither an excessive chilly winters nor an excessive heat in the midsummer. at the cemetery on the island.
There is proof that Polynesians have found the Auckland Isles. Vestiges of the Polish colony, possibly from the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries, were found by archeologists on Enderby Island. In 1806 a whaler, Ocean, spotted the island and found it unpopulated. On August 18, 1806, Captain Abraham Bristow called it "Lord Auckland's" in honor of his father's pal William Eden, first Baron Auckland.
It was Bristov who worked for the business man Samuel Enderby, the eponym of Enderby Island. Short-term whaler and seal hunter base sites were established, and in the years immediately following their detection, the island became one of the most important seal sites in the Pacific. Until 1812 so many seal were slaughtered that the island was no longer of economic importance and the seal hunters directed their effort to the Campbell and Macquarie-Island.
The number of visitors to the island decreased, although the recovery of seals in the mid-1820s enabled a moderate resuscitation of the population. Now[ update] deserted, the archipelagoes saw the mid-19th centuries settlement failures. A small group of M?ori and their Moriori slave moved from the Chatham Isles to the island in 1842 and survived from seals and lax breeding for about 20 years.
In 1846 Samuel Enderby's grandchild, Charles Enderby, suggested a farming and whale-catching alliance. Founded in Port Ross in 1849, this village called Hardwicke took only two and a half years. Auckland Islands were part of the New Zealand Empire under the Letters Patents of April 1842, which set New Zealand's southerly border at 53 degrees southward, but they were then expelled by the 1846 law, which set the southward border at 47 degrees 10' southward; however, they were re-extended by the New Zealand Boundaries Act of 1863, a law of the Imperial Parliament of Westminster, which expanded the borders of the state.
There are several vessels that have found the island's cliffy coastlines catastrophic. The Grafton thwarts Madelene Ferguson Allen's tale of her great-grandfather Robert Holding and the shipwreck of the Scotch sailboat Invercauld, which was destroyed a few month later on the Auckland Islets. Édouard Raynal also written Les Naufragés, or twenty month on a reef on the Auckland Isles.
1866 one of New Zealand's most renowned wrecked ships, the General Grant. 15 remnants spent eighteen month waiting for rescues on Auckland Island. In 1868, due to the likelihood of wreckage around the island, the creation of a shipwreck depot was called for.
From 1887 the New Zealand government set up and operated three such deposits in Port Ross, Norman Inlet and Carnley Harbour. It also hid extra stores, which included vessels (to get to the depots) and 40 fingerposts (which had smaller quantities of supplies), around the isles. In 1907, another marine disaster took place off Disappointment Island with the death of the Dundonald and 12 members of the garrison, and the fifteen who survived the wreck were living off the Auckland Island deposit.
In 1907, the Sub-Antarctic Isles scientific expedition took ten long journeys to the Isles to conduct a magnetical study and take botany, zoology and geology samples. Between 1941 and 1945 there was a New Zealand weather observatory on the island as part of a coastal observation program known as the Cape Expedition for safety missions.
Among the employees was Robert Falla, later an important New Zealand researcher. Currently [update] the island has no residents, although researchers come here on a regular basis and the government permits restricted tourist activities on Enderby Island and Auckland Island. In 2014, new reservations were created, which are about 15x the size of the Stewart Island reservation, making the sub-Antarctic island the country's biggest nature area.
Island flora was first described in the Flora by Lord Auckland and Campbell's Island, a Ross episode of the 1839-43 Ross Quest, by Joseph Dalton Hooker and edited by Reeve Brothers in London between 1843 and 1845. There are several different altitudes on the island.
Inside the sprayed saline area on the edge of the island are predominantly woods of the south metrosideros erythematosum and in places the sub-Antarctic daisies (Olearia lyallii), which were probably imported by seal hunters. They are home to the biggest sub-Antarctic invertebrate community with 24 types of spiders, 11 types of springtails and over 200 bugs.
This includes 57 kinds of beetles, 110 insects and 39 moth. They also have an indigenous type and specie of Neta, Dendroplectron cyptacanthus. In the fresh water environment of the island there is a fresh water fishing, coaro or rock climber galaxy that thrives in salt water as a teenager but comes back to the river as an adulthood.
There are 19 types of indigenous fresh water invertebrate on the island, among them a mollusk, a shellfish, a dayfly, 12 bowers and two quiver flies. of the Auckland Island are indigenous to the island. In the 21 st centurys the isles were the most important nesting place of New Zealand sealions. There are only two indigenous mammals: two seals that spread across the island, the New Zealand skin seals and the endangered New Zealand selion.
Also, the tropical grey seal began to resettle on the island. There is a well recuperating populations of more than 2,000 South Right Right Whale species off the island, and the Port Ross area is the most important and entrenched gathering place for cetaceans in New Zealand water, and its importance even surpasses that of Campbell Island.
They are home to important nesting populations of sea birds, including albatross, penguin and several small storm birds, with a million couples of Great Auklets. Land birds are the redfronted and golden parakeets, the New Zealand hawk, the cheek, the bell birds, the pi-pits and an indigenous variety of comet. BirdLife International has designated the entire Auckland Island Group as an Important Bird Area (IBA) due to its importance as a nesting area for various sea bird populations and for the indigenous Auckland River Basin area.
Sea birds comprise rockhoppers and yellow-eyed penguins, antipodic, king albatross, bright and white-headed albatross and white-chinned petrels. A number of imported strains have arrived on the island; the captains Musgrave and Norman took caprines, other useful livestock and seeds to the island in 1865 to look for shipwrecked people; environmentalists have been eliminating or exterminating cows, ovine, goat, dog, possum and rabbit in the 90s, but wild cat, pig and mouse are still on Auckland Island.
In 1993, the last rabbit on Enderby Island were poisoned and exterminated. Strangely enough, despite frequent calls and wrecks and their omnipresence on other isles, rivets have never been able to colonize the isles. Imported wildlife affected indigenous flora and birds and led to the disappearance of New Zealand's Merganese, a formerly common South New Zealand wild boar that was eventually limited to the isles.